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Defense Threat Reduction Agency: Basic Research for Nuclear Detection

Defense Threat Reduction Agency: Basic Research for Nuclear Detection. Dave Petersen Basic Research Program Manager. DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A : Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited. DTRA Mission. Combatant Command Customers.

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Defense Threat Reduction Agency: Basic Research for Nuclear Detection

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  1. Defense Threat Reduction Agency: Basic Researchfor Nuclear Detection Dave Petersen Basic Research Program Manager DISTRIBUTION STATEMENT A: Approved for public release, distribution is unlimited.

  2. DTRA Mission Combatant Command Customers The Defense Threat Reduction Agency enables DoD, the U.S. Government, and International Partners to counter and deter Weapons of Mass Destruction and Improvised Threat Networks.

  3. DTRA RDT&E Overview - Mission Sets Prevent Contain Respond Understand Environment, Threats, and Vulnerabilities Control, Defeat, Disable and/or Dispose WMD Threats Safeguard the Force and Manage Consequences • Special operations support • WMD ISR • WMD targeting and defeat • HDBT characterization and defeat Enabling Technologies • System Survivability • Threat Agent Mitigation • Hazard Characterization and Prediction • Personal Protection • Medical Diagnostics & Analysis • Vaccines/Therapeutics • Rapid response and restoration • Global Situational Awareness • Threat Detection • Forensics • Weapons Effects • Verification and monitoring • Consequence of Execution • Identifying Emerging Threats • Basic Research • CWMD Testing Capabilities • 24/7 Technical Reachback • Advanced Analytics • Interagency/international leverage

  4. Technology Readiness Levels (TRL) 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 Today’s Discussion is Basic Research (6.1) University-Industry Grant Program 6.2 DTRA Basic Research Efforts 6.1 Applied Research, Application Development, and Operations Efforts 6.2 and beyond Transition Transition Today’s Discussion is on Basic Research Grants

  5. DTRA Basic Research Program VISION Forward-looking research program targeting strategic, mission-focused, basic research with high potential impact for counter WMD Revolutionary approaches to technological surprise Expand knowledge base to help the warfighter New science solutions with a fresh approach • Train the next-generation workforce • Advance the fundamental knowledgeand understanding in the sciences • Promote university researchto support WMD threat reduction • Facilitate transitionof research that enable new capabilities for the warfighter BUILDING THE FOUNDATION FOR TOMORROW’S CWMD

  6. University Partnership Transitioning to a University Partnership model • End state FY22, three to four Cooperative Agreements with teams of Universities, each for $5-7M per year • Agreements may be for as long as 10 years • Increase engagement with the academic community • STEM Workforce development Timeline • 3 draft BAAs are currently posted on grants.gov • Expect to award one or two Cooperative Agreements in early FY20 • Final BAAs will be posted shortly after the University Day, pending extent of feedback received • Questions can be sent to: DTRA-URA-Program@mail.mil

  7. Est. Funding: $6M/Yr Base: 5Yrs Options: 2 x 2 Yrs Project Overview Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Matter (IIRM) Opportunities Mission

  8. Est. Funding: $6M/Yr Base: 5Yrs Options: 2 x 2 Yrs IIRM Overview • Primary focus on Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Physical Materials • Overall goals include: • Radiation sensing from multiple platforms • Cost effective radiation hardening and hardness testing of DoD systems • Safe and efficient military operations in a nuclear environment • Achieve these goals by the following: • Collaborative research, analysis, testing, modeling and simulation • Learning to better bridge energy deposition into novel device behavior • Devising testing and protection measures that increase options for protection and survivability against radiation • Uncovering hidden insights and meaningful events and anomalies • TPOCs from Nuclear Technologies Department • Nuclear Detection Division • Nuclear Survivability Division • Nuclear Forensics Division

  9. URA Structure Interaction of Ionizing Radiation with Matter Devices and Integration Materials Survivability and Response It is anticipated that all Focus Areas will be addressed over the life of the Alliance. Only the ones in green must be addressed in the IPP. Radiation Sensing Materials Photodetectors Survivability Testing Optical Materials Collection and Analysis Non-Volatile Memory Functional Physical Materials Detector Electronics and Signal Processing RN Contamination Functional Computational and Electronic Materials Non-Traditional Computational Devices Shielding Cross Cutting Research Initiative: Modeling and Simulation

  10. RA1: Materials (~35%) Fundamental interactions of ionizing radiation (photons, electrons, protons, neutrons, and heavy ions) with materials FA1 - Radiation Sensing: Materials with excellent resolution and efficiency and are also robust, lightweight, and produced in a variety of unconventional sizes and shapes FA2 - Optical: Radiation effects on high speed optical communication, propagation and collection of scintillated light, and optical coatings and cover glasses FA3 - Functional Physical: Amplify energy of the radiation interaction, act as a source of energy and power for the computational materials FA4 - Functional Computational and Electronic: Radiation effects in emerging computational and electronic materials - total ionizing dose, displacement damage, dose rate, and single event effects

  11. RA2: Devices and Integration (~20%) Understand how materials and simple devices interact with each other and with ionizing radiation FA1 - Photodetectors: Compact, photosensitive solid-state sensors that have low noise, fast response, and high quantum efficiency - competitive with SiPMs FA2 - Non-Volatile Memory: Radiation effects challenges associated with scaling and integrating FA3 - Detector Electronics and Signal Processing: Improve performance and integration of the non-detection components of a detector system and automate information processing FA4 - Non-Traditional Computational Devices: Radiation effects on non-traditional and non-Von Neumann computational devices, approaches, architectures, and algorithms

  12. RA3: Survivability and Response (~20%) Protect soldiers, buildings, and equipment ensuring the capability to respond to a nuclear explosion FA1 - Survivability Testing: Nuclear survivability testing as the DoD looks to modernize its strategic systems FA2 - Collection and Analysis: New and faster methods for collecting and analyzing samples to determine the characteristics of a nuclear blast FA3 - RN Contamination: Prevent or reduce radiological contamination FA4 - Shielding: Light weight, low cost, multi-threat (including ionizing radiation) shielding materials and methods

  13. Alliance Collaboration • Shared physics across radiation detection, radiation hardening, and operations in nuclear environments • Expect natural collaboration within RAs • Anticipate research progression across the RAs • E.g. Material Device Testing • Teaming between material experts, device experts, radiation experts, application experts • Shared models, simulations, and computational tools • Exposure of students to broad spectrum of research

  14. Collaboration and Development Collaboration with DTRA • DTRA does not have a lab • Increased TPOC involvement vis a grant • Frequent telecons, meetings, VTCs, emails, lab discussions • Potential for: • Deeper understanding of mission challenges • Rotations • Interaction with DTRA contractors • Participation in DTRA funded experiments • Senior leadership exposure Workforce Collaboration and Development Student and staff rotations, internships, and site visits Seminars, workshops, and reviews Shared facilities, tests, and resources

  15. Student Pipeline Development (Student Sandbox) • Mandatory element for IIRM (evaluated at pre-proposal and full proposal stage) • Purpose is to foster long-term interaction between high school or undergraduate students and IIRM subject matter experts • Encouraged to focus on areas of high student interest and overlap with DTRA mission space • E.g. small unmanned systems • Could involve a competition or “grand” challenge • Should evolve over the life of the Alliance • Initial approach (1-2 years) should be sufficiently developed for pre-proposal and full proposal

  16. Current and Recent Projects • Scintillators for multiple platforms • Solid state photodetectors • Algorithms for RN search • Direct conversion solid state neutron detectors • Laser-based sensing of ionized air • Low power computation

  17. Robust Organic Scintillators for Unmanned Sensing PI: Jason Hayward (U Tenn) Co-PIs: QibingPei (UCLA), Hairong Qi (U Tenn)

  18. New Concepts for Unmanned Radiation Detection and Mapping Systems, Kai Vetter, UC Berkeley

  19. Robust Spectroscopic Organic Scintillators for Detection of RN Materials PI: Bernard Keppelen (GA Tech) Co-PIs: Nolan Hertel (GA Tech), Michael Shannon (GA Tech) Objective: Conduct studies of the thermo-mechanical and radiation-detection properties of organic scintillators to demonstrate polymer and amorphous-solid scintillators capable of gamma spectroscopy with energy resolution better than 10% at 662 keV. Description of Effort: This is a basic research program aimed at studying the properties of organic scintillators, under temperature and humidity cycling loads, based on emitters displaying thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) loaded with high Z and conventional fluorophores with optimized electron exchange interactions in polymeric (elastomer, shape-memory polymers and thermoplastics) and amorphous-solid materials. Benefits of Proposed Technology: This effort will create mechanically robust scintillators with optimized shapes of interest which will be deployable using low-cost manufacturing techniques including, injection-molding and 3D printing, making them highly suitable for easy incorporation into an array of platforms including, manportable, manwearable and unmanned systems. Challenges: Knowledge of thermal and radiation detection properties of novel polymer and amorphous solid; Optimization of electron exchange interactions; Identification of suitable materials; Identification and optimization of shapes of interest for autonomous RN search. Maturity of Technology(s): TRL 1 Research Area: TA1: Topic G3 Robust organic scintillators and algorithms to advance autonomous RN search. Major Goals/Milestones by fiscal year: FY18: Develop TADF-based thermoplastic and amorphous solid scintillators FY19: Develop Hybrid TADF-based scintillators FY20: Develop optimized scintillators Proposed Funding ($K):Total $1,050K Year 1 Funding: $350K Year 2 Funding: $350K Year 3 Funding: $350K Period of Performance: 36 months PI Contact Information: Bernard Kippelen, Ph.D.(PI), kippelen@gatech.edu, (404) 385-5163; Nolan Hertel, Ph.D. (Co-PI); Michael Shannon, Ph.D. (Co-PI)

  20. Nanocomposite Quantum Dot and Perovskite Scintillators PI: Paul Sellin (U Surrey, UK)

  21. Solution Processable Wide Gap Perovskites for Photodetectors PI: Michael Chabinyc (U Cal, Santa Barbara) Layered wide gap organic metal halide compounds Objective: The aim is to study the fundamental optoelectronic properties of wide-gap solution processableorgano-metal halide semiconductors. Photosensors with high quantum efficiency (>50%) and photoconductive gain will be developed. Such materials will enable low-cost, high sensitivity photodetectors for C-WMDs. Method: Solution processable hybrid organic metal halide materials will be studied to determine best candidates for high performance photodetectors. Thin-film photodetectors • Y1: Development of wide gap Pb-based photosensors • Y2: Discovery of new materials leading to photodetectors with high performance. • Y3: Examination of gain mechanisms in Pb- and Bi-based photodetectors Funding Profile $150K Year 1 2/15-2/16 $150K Year 2 2/16-2/17 $150K Year 3 2/17-2/18 Contact informationMichael Chabinyc mchabinyc@engineering.ucsb.edu 805-893-4042 Status of effort: Developed time resolved microwave conductivity instrument to study carrier lifetime in organic metal halide materials. Examined carrier lifetime vs. mobility in 3D and wider gap 2D layer metal-halide semiconductors. Personnel Supported: PI, 1 post-doc, 1 Graduate Student Publications & Meetings: 4 Publications, 2 invited Presentations at major conferences & 4 contributed talks by students/post-docs

  22. Fast Photo-Detectors with High Quantum Efficiency in the UV Spectral RegionPI: Irina Novikova (William and Mary) Objective: the development of novel, robust, ultra-fast, low-power photo-detectors with high quantum efficiency in the spectral region from blue to deep ultraviolet Method: The detector will measure the changes in electrical and optical properties of vanadium dioxide VO2 thin film under the illumination of UV/blue light due to photo-induced structural metal-insulator transition. Plasmonic nanostructures will be used to enhance the sensitivity. n, g VO2 on TiO2:Nb sample VO2 detector prototype Status of effort:Growth of VO2:TiO2(Nb) films were demonstrated and optimized; their external quantum efficiency exceeding1000% at 420nm and 250nm demonstrated. Surface plasmon – induced metal-insulator transition in VO2:Au heterostructure demonstrated. Personnel Supported: PI I. Novikova; grad. students: J. Creeden, S.E. Madaras (12 months); Technician: D. Beringer (6 months). Publications & Meetings: 1 paper accepted and 1 paper submitted in peer-review journals, 3 oral and 7 poster presentations by two graduate students. Major goals/milestones: Year 2 Task 2.1:Optimization of growth properties pf VO2 thin films on Nb:TiO2 substrates. Task 2.2: Characterization of photosensitivity of theVO2/TiO2:doped thin film in UV/blue spectral range. Task 2.3: Demonstration of the plasmonic enhancement of VO2 transitional properties. Funding Profile $149,940 (Year 1: 9/1/16-8/31/17) $150,062 (Year 2: 9/1/17-8/31/18) $150,027 (Year 3: 9/1/18-8/31/19) Contact information PI: Dr. Irina Novikova, inovikova@physics.wm.edu, (757) 221-3693

  23. Plasmon-Enhanced Inverted Organic Bulk Heterojunction UV Photo-DetectorsPI: Qiuming Yu (U Wash) Inverted BHJ UV Photodetectors with Al and Ag Plasmonic Nanostructures as Transparent Electrodes Objective: To fundamentally investigate the enhancement mechanisms of plamonic nanostructures in the inverted polymer-based UV photodetectors. Method: Apply finite-difference time-domain (FDTD) simulations to design plasmonic Al nanostructures. Fabricate nanostructures using nanoimprintand nanosphere lithography methods. Fabricate photodetectors and measure external quantum efficiency (EQE) and current density-voltage (J-V) curves under dark and illumination at different biases to evaluate photodetector performance. • Major Goals and Milestones by Project year • Design/fabricate Al plasmonic nanostructures • and optimize device architectures • Fabricate/evaluate organic photodetectors • Fabricate/evaluate Al plasmonphotodetectors • Fabricate/evaluate nanocompistephotodetectors • Funding Profile • Year 1: $150K, 02/13/15-09/30/15 • Year 2: $160K, 10/01/15-09/30/16 • Year 3: $140K, 10/01/16-09/30/17 • Year 4: $150K, 04/14/18-04/15/19 • Contact information • Qiuming Yu, qyu@uw.edu, 206-543-4807 Status of effort: Al plasmonic nanostructures has been designed and fabricated as transparent electrodes to enhance UV transmission. High gain at UV range has been achieved with controlled microstructure of organic active layer and selected charge transfer/blocking layers for devices with inverted and conventional architectures. Personnel Supported: PI and seven graduate students and four undergraduate students supported by and associated with the research effort. Publications & Meetings:3 peer-reviewed papers, 3 MS theses and 4 conference presentations.

  24. High Efficiency Low-cost Nanocomposite for Radiation Detection Enabled by Charge Triggered Secondary Charge InjectionPI: Jinsong Huang (U NCar) CoPI: Raymond Cao (Ohio St) Objective: This research project explores a new method for detecting radiation that is state-of-the-science, large scale, and of low cost to produce. This objective will be accomplished through exploring a new type of room temperature, X-/γ-ray detector with detectivity superior to amorphous Se (α-Se) or CdZnTe (CZT) detectors that is inexpensive to produce, and can be scaled up and deployed broadly. Relevance: The success of this project will lead to a new generation of uncooled portable radiation detectors that are highly sensitive, low-cost, battery powered, and preserving energy information for X-, γ-ray detection. Results this year: • Excluded impurity in high quality FAPbBr3 single crystal for better electric properties • FA based perovskite solar cell shows good gamma ray radiation resistance • First perovskite fast neutron detector is demonstrated • Showed excellent radiation hardness of perovskite polycrystalline materials Funding: Y1 $331k, Y2 $389k Y3 $328k Y4 $350k Y5 $350k PI contact Information: Jinsong Huang, jhuang@unc.edu, (919)-445-1107 Raymond Cao, cao.152@osu.edu, (614) 247-8701 Method: This perovskite single crystal detector will be developed by optimizing the single crystal quality and carefully passivating the surface trap states to maximum the mu-tau product as well as the charge collection efficiency. Personnel Supported: Two PIs, three Post-doc, one graduate students and one undergraduate students. Publications & Meetings: Three peer-reviewed publications, two provisional patents, two presentations in the previous12 months

  25. Harmonic Analysis Methodologies for Autonomous Radiological Search: A Data Driven ApproachWojciechCzaja, University of Maryland, HDTRA1-13-1-0015 Objective: Advance the state-of-the-art for radiological search through development of algorithms for spectral anomaly detection, dimension reduction algorithms, compressive sensing, and manifold learning. Develop adaptive algorithms for terrain coverage, and directional representations for spectral data. Method: Development and application of powerful methods from harmonic analysis to enable coherent coupling of radiation sensing and autonomous systems through deep data fusion.  Data driven approach using real-world experiments. Picture or Graphic that illustrates the research or concept Status of effort: We have developed a comprehensive pipeline for spectral anomaly detection, utilizing UAV-UGV collaborative search methods. This approach has been tested in the field and is has been optimized with use of novel machine learning algorithms and inverse problems. Personnel Supported: 3 faculty, 3 scientists, 7 graduate students. Publications & Meetings: 10 peer reviewed publications accepted or published, an additional 5 submitted for peer review. 9 presentations with 7 oral presentations delivered by invited speakers. • Years 1-3: Algorithms for Data Integration, Spectral Anomaly Detection, Threat Classification, and Dimension Reduction. Radiation Transport Modeling and Data Collection. Determine Computational Requirements, Trade-off Analysis. • Years 4 and 5: Algorithm Optimization, Sensor Fusion Extensions, Operational Testing, Path Forward. • Funding Profile $349,328 12/3/12-12/2/13, $353,948 12/3/13-12/2/14, $372,583 12/3/14-12/2/15, $384,999 12/3/15-12/2/16, $373,760 12/3/16-12/2/17. • Contact information PI: WojciechCzaja, wojtek@math.umd.edu, 301-405-5106. • Co-PI: John Benedetto and Lance McLean.

  26. Dynamic Placement of Sensors for Rapid Characterization of Radiation Threat PI: ArturDubrawski (Carnegie Mellon U) CoPIs: Labov (LLNL), Michael (CMU) Objective: To develop a robust framework for autonomous detection and localization of nuclear WMD with multi-modal information collection in realistically complex scenarios. Relevance: Develop novel, scalable, probabilistic framework for real-time identification of potentially anisotropic, shielded, stationary or moving radiation threats. Provide dependable foundation (at Technology Readiness Level 1) for future development of highly effective autonomous radiation characterization systems. Results this year: • Theory+algorithm for data fusion under GPS error • Improved evaluation methods for data fusion • Robust distribution-to-distribution registration • Multi-resolution volumetric model for surfaces • Integrated exploration and mapping for multi-robot • Funding ($000s): • $150 FY13, $150 FY14, $150 FY15, $350 FY16, $350 FY17. • PI : Dr. ArturDubrawski, awd@cs.cmu.edu, 412-268-6233 Approach: Leverage and customize Machine Learning and Physics analytics to develop a powerful unified analytic framework for aggregation of evidence from multiple heterogeneous sensors. Include capabilities missing in currently available threat detection systems. Integrate and test using previously collected field data with sophisticated simulated WMD threats. Personnel Support: 3 regular faculty, 3 project faculty, 8 doctoral students, 4 masters students, 1 undergrad, 7 staff researchers.

  27. Networked mobility-enabled Detection of Weak Radiological SignaturesPI: Herbert Tanner (U Delaware) CoPI: Klimenko (LANL)

  28. Improving Novel Boron Carbide Polymers for Enhanced Neutron DetectionPI: Jeffry Kelber (U NTexas) CoPI: Peter Dowben (U Neb) Objective: To develop aromatic/carborane-based films with enhanced neutron detection capabilities versus conventional boron carbide detectors, while maintaining gamma-blindness and robust damage resistance in low/medium radiation flux environments Pre-Flight Detection Sensitivity to solar neutron flux: Comparable to smuggled WMD Post-Flight Benz.-orthocarborane Si (p-type) Relevance: Better neutron detection, solid state mechanisms for stewardship of fissile materials Results this year: • Demonstrated multiple, stoichiometry-dependent charge transport mechanisms • Demonstrated sensitivity to solar neutron flux, comparable to that expected from smuggled WMD Approach: Use plasma enhanced chemical vapor deposition (PECVD) to fabricate films, with characterization by photoemission, ellipsometry and transport measurements, plus neutron voltaic and radiation damage studies Contact Information: PI: Jeff Kelber kelber@unt.edu 940-565-4359 co-PI: Peter A. Dowben pdowben1@unl.edu 402-472-9838 Funding: Year 1: 150K 6/1/14 - 6/1/15, Year 2: 150K 6/1/15 - 6/1/16, Year 3: 164.5K 6/1/16 - 6/1/17, Year 4: 150K 6/1/17 - 6/1/18 Personnel Support: 1 Postdoc (part time) 1 graduate student (full time) 2 undergraduates (part-time) 2 Pi’s, (1 month each)

  29. Realizing Thick-Film Boron Carbide Direct-Conversion Neutron Detectors PI: Michelle Paquette (U Miss-KC) CoPI: Peter Dowben (U Neb) Objective:Toward the realization of thick-film amorphous hydrogenated boron carbide (a-BxC:Hy) direct-conversion neutron detectors, this work aims to: (1) accurately measure and improve the charge transport properties of a-BxC:Hy, and (2) achieve growth rates and mechanical/environmental stability for the realization of thick (10–100 μm) films. Method:Application of a suite of photoconductivity-based experiments (steady-state/transient, surface/uniform absorption, low/high field) to determine µe, µh, τe, τh on a range of a-BxC:Hyheterostructures. Status of Effort:Identified conditions for producing consistently high-mobility films. Successfully fabricated mechanically/electrically stable, thick film on Cu foil with high mobility. Completed steady-state and transient photoconductivity experiments on a number of heterostructures. Personnel Supported:1 research professor (partial), I graduate student, 1 undergraduate student (partial) Publications & Meetings:1 peer-reviewed publication, 1 oral conference presentation Goals/Milestones (1) a-BxC:Hy film growth, devices & characterization [Y1-Y4] (2) Thick film growth [Y1-Y4] (3) Electronic structure/charge transport model [Y1/Y2] (4) Mobility, μτ, and lifetime measurements [Y1-Y4] (6) Detector efficiency evaluation based on μτ [Y1-Y4] (7) Customized detection instrumentation [Y3] Funding Profile $99,882 (12/14-12/15); $99,950 (12/15-06/17 w/ NCE); $99,932 (06/17-02/18); $99,980 (02/18-02/19) Contact informationMichelle M. Paquette, paquettem@umkc.edu, 816-235-1338

  30. Urania-Based Direct-Conversion Neutron Detectors PI: Thomas T. Meek (U Tenn) UO3 Density Band Gap Objective:To determine the electrical carrier transport properties and interfacial metal contact behavior for U3O8 and UO3 as a function of stoichiometry, grain size, and metal contact type toward its application in solid-state fast neutron detection. Method: (1) Fabricate and characterize U3O8 and UO3 pellets (2) Measure electrical/electronic properties (ρ, Eg, µτ) (3) Understand process-property trends and optimize Status of effort:γ-UO3 pellets with stoichiometry UO2.81–UO3.03 densified to >95% theoretical density. Grain size found to be 1.40–1.80 μm. ρ measured to be 1010–1011 Ω·cm and estimated µ<10–3 cm2/Vs. Electrical properties more dependent on phase than microstructure or density. Personnel Supported: 2 faculty (partial), 1 research prof (partial), 2 grad students (full), 3 undergrad students (partial) Publications & Meetings: 1 poster (RTSD); 1 poster (SAMPE); 2 posters (SORMA XVII), 2 posters (NCUR/Hill) Goals/Milestones (1) Highly dense UO3 produced with phase identification via XRD. (2) Acceptable ρ of 1010–1011 Ω cm, but mobility out of range for measurements. (3) Proposed methods of improving mobility. Funding Profile $261,851 Y1 (9/15-9/16); $235,425 Y2 (9/16-9/17); $242,422 Y3 (9/17-9/18) Contact information Thomas Meek, tmeek7@utk.edu, 865-742-7393 Anthony Caruso, carusoan@umkc.edu, 816-235-2505

  31. Active Detection of Fissile Materials via Laser-Induced Ionization-Seeded Plasmas PI: Mark Hammig (U Mich) Objective: Demonstrate fissile material detection and identification at 1 km range using ultrafast laser pulses as an interrogation source. Relevance: • Conduct basic-physics investigations so that the optimal mode of electromagnetic interrogation can be identified for the specific case of fissile materials. • Find solutions for enhanced-signal creation and extraction, regardless of the level of shielding. • Detail the perturbation state of the region surrounding fissile materials, which can inform all long-range detection efforts. ns laser-pulse interrogation radiation-induced plasma Tasks: • Year 1: Quantify the conditions under which one achieves a highly selective ionization probe, focusing on ultrafast lasers. • Year 2: Study the various manifestations of the plasma formation- optical, audible, microwave radiation- and determine which provides the best probe from both a sensitivity and selectivity standpoint. • Year 3: Determine the beam shape and explicate the underlying physics that maximizing the sensitivity of the system to air ionization. • Year 4: Establish the possible plasma seed-sources and quantify their participating in identifying the nuclear material. • Year 5: Design and test the optical system and plasma sensor that delivers sufficient sensitivity to detect critical masses of HEU. Funding Profile: FY12: $364k; FY13: $356k FY14: $347k FY15: $342k FY16: $337k PI Contact information: • Mark Hammig, hammig@umich.edu, 734-660-9412 Approach:Use a pulsed laser interrogation source to deliver sufficient electric field intensities such that the residual ionization and free electron density about the radioactive source is intensified in a collisional cascade, such that the resulting plasma filament is detectable at long range. . Personnel Supported: • 3 Faculty • 4 Graduate Student Research Assistant • 2 Part-time Undergraduate Students • 1 Physicist (part-time) from Industry

  32. Remote Detection of Nuclear Material using Optically Induced Air Breakdown Ionization EM Signatures PI: Phillip Sprangle(U Md) CoPI: Howard Milchberg(U Md) Objective: Demonstrate a new concept for remote detection of nuclear material, based on optically induced air ionization EM signatures. Concept can provide stand-off detection >100m. Method: In the vicinity of radioactivity, electrons are generated by gammas and attach to oxygen molecules. Laser beams are used to photo-detach electrons and collisionally ionize the surrounding air. The return EM signatures can be guided by air waveguides or reflected off the ionized region and indicate the presence of radioactivity. Goals/Milestones: Yr 1: Model reflection of modulated signal. Yr 2: Optical breakdown/air waveguide theory & experiments. Yr 3: Analyze and model Resonant Rayleigh Backscattering Signature off Oxygen ions Yr 4: POC experiments with mid-IR laser + modelling Funding Profile Years 1 - 4: $ 300K per year PIs: P. Sprangle and H. Milchberg, Professors. of Elect. and Comp. Eng. and Phys., U. Md. , sprangle@umd.edu , 703 559 5498 (C) Status of effort: Proof-of-concept (POC) experiments using a mid-IR laser system have been successful, and will continue in coming year. Personnel Supported: Three grad. students: J. Isaacs, R. Schwartz, and D. Woodbury. Two part-time faculty and one part time post-doc. Publications and Meetings: “Remote detection of radioactive material using mid-IR laser-driven electron avalanche”, R. Schwartz, D. Woodbury, J. Isaacs, P. Sprangle, and H. M. Milchberg (not yet published)

  33. Energy-Efficient On-Chip Analysis for Radiation Detection Applications Using Neuromorphic Algorithms and Systems PI: Marek Osinski, University of New Mexico

  34. Event based signal processing for isotope identification at reduced power – Kromek – PI: Ed Marsden

  35. Performing Ultra-Low-Power Matrix-Vector Multiplications using Topological-Insulators, William Vandenberghe, The University of Texas at Dallas

  36. Questions?

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