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The Role of Personality in Leadership. Presented by: Bob Barnwell Debbie Dover Allyson Haga Gary Hughes Ryan Dailey. Per·son·al·i·ty.
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The Role of Personality in Leadership Presented by: Bob Barnwell Debbie Dover Allyson Haga Gary Hughes Ryan Dailey
Per·son·al·i·ty • 1 a: the quality or state of being a person b: personal existence 2 a: the condition or fact of relating to a particular person ; specifically : the condition of referring directly to or being aimed disparagingly or hostilely at an individual b: an offensively personal remark <angrily resorted to personalities> 3 a: the complex of characteristics that distinguishes an individual or a nation or group ; especially : the totality of an individual's behavioral and emotional characteristics b: a set of distinctive traits and characteristics <the energetic personality of the city> 4 a: distinction or excellence of personal and social traits ; also : a person having such quality b: a person of importance, prominence, renown, or notoriety <a TV personality> (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2008)
Lead·er·ship • 1 : the office or position of a leader 2 : capacity to lead 3 : the act or an instance of leading 4 : leaders <the party leadership> (Merriam-Webster Online Dictionary, 2008)
Leadership • Leadership involves persuading other people to set aside for a period of time their individual concerns and to pursue a common goal that is important for the responsibilities and welfare of a group • This definition is morally neutral • Leadership is persuasion, not domination; persons who can require others to do their bidding because of their power are not leaders (Hogan, Curphy and Hogan, 1994, p. 493-504)
Leadership Leadership only occurs when others willingly adopt, for a period of time, the goals of a group as their own. Thus, leadership concerns building cohesive and goal-oriented teams; there is a causal and definitional link between leadership and team performance
History • Astrology • Ancient Greece - 4 Humors • Melancholic • Sanguine • Choleric • Phelgmatic
History • Phrenology – 18th Century • Franz Josef Gall--Body Types (Treveno & Konrad - Science & Education, v17 n5, p477-491, May 2008)
History • 1930's – Allport identified more than 17,000 terms for personality traits (Schneider, Human Resource Management, 2007) • 1940's – WWII sparks rapid growth in evaluation technologies • Isabel Myers begins work on a personality test (Kennedy, Journal of Employment Counseling, 2004) • Military focus on personality & leadership (Schneider, Human Resource Management, 2007) • William Sheldon's Somatypes
History • 1950's & 60's - Tupes and Christal • Boiling down thousands of terms into 5 key factors (Schneider, Human Resource Management, 2007)
The “Big Five” Factors Personality Testing
Conscientiousness • IllustrativeAdjectives • Organized • Systematic • Thorough • Hardworking • Neat • Dependable (McCrae and Costa, 1989) (Mount et al, 1994) (Hogan, 1991) Characteristics • Responsible • Dependable • Able to plan • Organized • Persistent • Need for achievement • Scrupulousness
Extraversion, Surgency, Sociability • Illustrative Adjectives • Extroverted • Talkative • Assertive • Gregarious • Energetic • Self-dramatizing (McCrae and Costa, 1989) (Mount et al, 1994) (Hogan, 1991) Characteristics • Sociable • Talkative • Assertive • Ambitious • Active • Dominance • Tendency to Experience Positive Emotions
Agreeableness • Illustrative Adjectives • Sympathetic • Cooperative • Warm • Tactful • Considerate • Trustful (McCrae and Costa, 1989) (Mount et al, 1994) (Hogan, 1991) Characteristics • Good-Natured • Cooperative • Trusting • Sympathy • Altruism
Emotional Stability, Adjustment • Illustrative Adjectives • Not Envious • Relaxed • Calm • Stable • Confident • Effective (McCrae and Costa, 1989) (Mount et al, 1994) (Hogan, 1991) Characteristics • Calm • Secure • Not Nervous
Openness to experience, Intellectance, Culture • Illustrative Adjectives • Intellectual • Creative • Artistic • Imaginative • Curious • Original (McCrae and Costa, 1989) (Mount et al, 1994) (Hogan, 1991) Characteristics • Imaginative • Artistically Sensitive • Aesthetically Sensitive • Intellectual • Depth of Feeling • Curiosity • Need for Variety
The “Big Five” Factors It is important for any hiring manager to remember the “Big Five” personality factors are not “Hard and Fast”, but rather a guide to identifying personality traits of future employees!
Measurementand Theories • Endless supply of both
Left, left, left, right, left… • The Military studies leadership?
Are Leaders Born or Made? • Three ways to become a leader (Bass, 1989 & 1990) • Trait • Great events • Transformational leadership
The Dark Side, Why Does Leadership Matter? • Because when they fail there are negative consequences!
Leadership Effectiveness • Beliefs, values, and ethics • Not who they are, but what they do • Hard to change imbedded personality traits
In Clark Aldrich's book, "Simulations and the Future of Learning," he tells the story of a manager who listened to the ideas presented to him by his subordinates and then went to his boss and presented them as his own. He then had the subordinates dismissed so that there were no witnesses left. I imagine that he was considered a good leader by both his boss and himself, yet the subordinates would of course have said otherwise.In most circumstances the best judges of leadership are the followers.
Application—Leading Down • Role of a leader • Creating a team • Delegate responsibilities • Motivate subordinates
Application—Leading Down Leader “Big Five” personality characteristics have an effect on subordinate attitudes (Smith & Canger, 2004) • High levels: • Agreeableness • Emotional Stability • Extraversion • Low levels: • Conscientiousness • Positive ratings
Application—Leading Down • Subordinate Big Five personality characteristics only have a moderate effect on leadership style (Hetland, Sandal & Johnsen, 2008) • Agreeableness • Emotional stability
Possible reasons why subordinates do not have an effect on leadership style • Frequency of contact • Learning climate • Job responsibilities
When leading down, leaders must use their strongest and most effective personality traits to direct and influence subordinates. While there is not necessarily a "wrong" personality trait to use, agreeableness and extraversion appear to have the highest level of positive feedback.
Conclusion The bottom line is performance. Whether you are working in a team, leading a department, or selling a service or a product, the way you communicate and persuade is critical to your personal success and you company's overall effectiveness (Dr Maynard Brusman, Working Resources, Vol 4, No 8)
Conclusion “Personalities at work are like cars in the city: They often can keep us from our destination.” (Pierce J Howard, The Owner's Manual for Personality at Work, 2001.)