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RESEARCH METHODOLGY-EDU 702. INSTRUMENTATION II (Interview, Checklist & Observation) Syed Khairul Hisham (2009 ) Siti Fairuz binti Hamid (2009152243) Nur Shaminah Mustafa Kamalu (2009957497). INTERVIEWS.
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RESEARCH METHODOLGY-EDU 702 INSTRUMENTATION II (Interview, Checklist & Observation) SyedKhairulHisham (2009 ) SitiFairuzbintiHamid (2009152243) Nur Shaminah Mustafa Kamalu (2009957497)
INTERVIEWS Interview is an interchangeable of views between two or more people on a topic of mutual interest (Kvale, 1996) Enable participants ( either interviewers or interviewee ) to discuss their interpretations of the world in which they live, and to express how they regard situation from the point of view Also known as careful asking of relevant question Used by qualitative researchers to collect data
Important way for a researchers to check the accuracy of – to verify or refute – the impressions he or she has gained through observation • Purpose of interviewing -To find out what is in their mind -Evaluate or assess a person in some respect -To test or develop hypothesis -To gather data -To sample respondent’s opinions
Concepts of interview (Kitwood, 1977) • a) Pure information transfer ask questions in an acceptable manner, respondents are sincere, accuracy may be obtained (vice versa) • b) has bias Need to be controlled and recognized • c) encounter necessarily sharing many of the feature of everyday life Theory of everyday life is needed, include role – playing, stereotype, perception and understanding
Types of interviews – Structured semi- structured informal retrospective Structured interview Content and procedures are organized in advance Sequence are determined by schedule Unstructured interview -open situation, flexibility and freedom -content, sequence and wording determined by interviewer - Often best conducted toward the end of a study
Informal interviews Much less formal than structured or semi-structured Resemble casual conversations, pursuing the interests of both the researchers and the respondent in return most common type of interviews To find out what people think and how the views of one individual compare with those of another Most difficult of all interviews as well Issue of ethics Must create environment of trust, cooperation and mutual respect Planning and asking good questions
Retrospective can be structured, semi structured or informal tries to get respondents to recall and then reconstruct from memory something that has happened in the past least likely to provide accurate & reliable data Key- Actor Interview • Key informants – people that are informed about their history and culture of their group • Knowledgeable individual and may provide detailed information about a group’s past and contemporary happenings and relationship • Researchers need to seek and establish a bond of trust with them
Interview approach • One on one interview Most time consuming costly approach Only one participant at a time ideal for interviewing participants who are not hesitant to speak, articulate and can share ideas comfortably • Focus group interviews interviewer ask a questions in group to think about a series of questions comment of an issue where everyone can listen to an opinion • Telephone interviews Due to barriers, geographical location Include adapter for phone recording • Electronic mail interviews Using mail by sending mail to interviewee
Types of interview questions • Background ( demographic) • Knowledge questions ( beliefs, attitudes ) • Experience • Opinion • Feeling questions • Sensory questions
Steps in interviewing • Identify the interviewee • Determine type of interview • Record the interview • Take briefs notes • Locate a nice environment for interview • Obtain consent from interviewee • Plan but flexible • Use probe • Courteous and professionals
Interviewing behaviour • Respect the culture of the group being studied • Respect the individual being interviewed • Be natural • Develop an appropriate rapport • Ask same questions in different ways • Ask the interviewee to repeat an answer if in doubt • Control the flow of communication • Avoid leading questions ( open ended ) • Don’t interrupt • Do not ask yes or no questions
Recording interview data tape recorder taking notes video tape microphone Mail programs for email interviewing
Ethics of an interview • Researchers need to protect the anonymity of the interviewee • Reduced risk to participants • Data are responsibility confidential • Respect the respondents to participate or withdraw • Protect participants from harm, mental discomfort • Provides participants with information about nature of study
Performance Checklists • One of the most frequently used of all measuring instruments • Consist of a list of behaviors that make up a certain type of performance • Use to determine whether an individual behaves in a certain way when asked to complete a particular task. • If a particular behavior is present, the researcher places a check mark on the list. R.F. Jack & E.W. Norman (2010)
Self-Checklist • Is a list of several characteristics or activities presented to the subjects of study. • The subjects will mark the checklist themselves in which they have engaged. • Usually use by the researcher that wants subjects to diagnose their own performances.
Disadvantages • Limited response to the questions • They never have enough categories to include every event you observe (Saphier, 1993). • There is usually no place to record supporting evidence f for your claims because the limited space (Saphier, 1993) .
Observation • process of recording the behavioral patterns of people, objects, and occurrences without questioning or communicating with them.(Burney & White,2004) • an act of recognizing and noting a fact or occurrence often involving measurement with instruments.(Merriam Webster online dictionary)
Participant observation -the researcher participate in the setting they are observing. -divided into 2: A-overt observation B-covert observation Overt observation-identity of the researcher is known to the participants Covert observation-do no reveal the identity as a researcher.
Nonparticipant observation • -researcher do not participate in the activity; “sit on the sidelines” and watch. • -shows that he/she is an interested observer who is conducting a research.
Naturalistic observation • observing individuals in their natural setting • The researcher do not manipulate any of the variables. • Records as things naturally occur. • Subjects may not realise that they are being studied
Role of the Observer Full-participant Partial Onlooker; observation participation observer is an outsider How the Observer Is Portrayed to Others Participants know Some but not Participants do not know that observations are being all of the that observations are being made and they know who is participants made or that there is making them. know the observer. someone observing them. How the Purpose of the Observation Is Portrayed to Others The purpose of the The purpose of the No explanation is False explanations are observation is fully explained observation is given to any of the given; participants are to all involved. explained to some of participants. deceived about the the participants. purpose of the observation. Duration of the Observations A single observation of limited Multiple observations; long-term duration (e.g., 30 minutes). duration (e.g., months, even years). Focus of the Observations Narrow focus: Only a single Broad focus: Holistic view of the activity or element or characteristic is observed. characteristic being observed and all of its elements is sought. Variations in approaches to Observation
Simulations • Observation done by creating a situation and ask subjects to act out; role play. • Two types of role-playing • a)individual role-playing • b)team role-playing • Researcher tells what to do, BUT not how to do it.
Observer Effect Impact due to the presence of the observer and impact on a study being done. Effect of observer: a-arouse curiosity of the people being observe b-behaviour of those being observe influence by the researcher’s purpose.
Observer bias • Referred to as the possibility that certain characteristics or ideas of observers may be bias with what they are actually observing. • Biasness happens due to past experience which in turn affect how we see the world. • How to reduce observe bias? i-study the subjective factors objectively. ii-collect data from a variety of perspective, using variety of formats. Iii-work in teams in order to check own observations against another’s
Coding observational data • Coding scheme-a set of categories that an observer uses to record the frequency of an individual’s or group’s behaviour. • An observer still must choose what to observe, even with a fixed coding scheme. • Data are coded into categories that emerge as the analysis proceeds
Observational tools • Field notes • Video recorder-permits the researcher to repeatedly review the behaviour of an individual or group. • Voice recorder
Advantages of Observation • Validity - which is measuring what we set out to measure-If behavior or events are clearly defined,then we have valid observation • No problem with respondents’ misunderstanding or misreporting • Direct observation of consumers
Disadvantagesof Observation • Can only observe physical actions, physical characteristics, etc. • CANNOT observe intentions, motivations • CANNOTdraw any conclusions about anything other than the physical actions or events • Not all actions can be observed