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Israel Palestine Conflict

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Israel Palestine Conflict

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  1. Israel Palestine Conflict Sai Kumar Swamy, PGPM, IIMB

  2. The Arab Story

  3. The Arab Empire – 700-850 AD

  4. The Ottoman Empire – 1500-1918

  5. Arab States

  6. Events of 1915-1918 • World War I • Ottoman empire • McMahon-Hussein Correspondence - 1915 -1916 • McMahon - Arab revolt against Ottoman empire • Hussein - Creation of Arab state • Balfour Declaration – 2nd Nov 1917 • "His Majesty's Government view with favour the establishment in Palestine of a national home for the Jewish people, and will use their best endeavours to facilitate the achievement of this object” • Sykes-Picot Agreement • Zionism - ZO

  7. What this led to • Palestinian Riots • 1920 • 1921 • Hebron Massacre • 23rd August, 1929 • 67 Jews killed • Rumors of Jewish occupation of Holy Lands • Similar attacks everywhere • 1936-1939 Arab Revolt • White paper of 1939 • Renounced Britain’s intent of creating a Jewish home in Palestine • Confiscated all weapons from Arab population

  8. The story of the Jews

  9. The story of the Jews • Displaced people • History of Attacks • 1648 Ukraine • 1821 Ukraine - The first riot actually called a ‘pogrom’ • 1881-84 Russia • Few deaths, but much fear and property destruction • Zionist Movement • 1903-6 Russia • Many deaths • Much Jewish emigration to Europe and the USA • 1918 Poland - 1919 Argentina - 1927 Romania • 1933 Germany • The Holocaust • 1945 Arab states such as Libya

  10. Holocaust • Nazi Germany and Hitler • Perpetrated the worst ‘Pogrom’ in living memory • Systematic elimination of Jews • Factory-like process • Concentration Camps • Jews - identified, labelled, herded, moved, stored, abused and finally killed • Result • Over 6 million Jews died • Exodus to safe countries • USA preferred destination • The Germans did not succeed in eliminating the Jews • RESULT :: Need for a SAFE homeland - Emigration

  11. UN Action - Inaction

  12. UN Action • 2 State theory • Palestine & Israel • Israel – 55% • Palestine – 45% • Rejected by Palestinian Arabs • Jewish settlers welcomed it – Ben Gurion • May 15, 1948 – End of British Rule • May 14, 1948 • Palestinians move in • Jews retaliate • Israel declares independence • Arab League declares war • Egypt, Iraq, Syria, Jordan and Lebanon plan invasions • IDF defeats the Arab forces

  13. Result of the War • Gains • Jordan • East Jerusalem • West Bank • Egypt • Gaza strip – Coastal Strip • Elsewhere the Arabic forces were all pushed back • 1949 the United Nations declared a cease-fire • Israel signed armistice agreements with all the Arab states • Israel had expanded by another 25%! • Arab exodus into neighboring countries • Jewish refugees flood Israel, USA • Ben Gurion – national hero

  14. 1948-1973 • Suez Crisis - 1956 • 6 day war – 1967 • Israel draws water from River Jordan • Restoration of national pride – Egypt (Gamel Abdel Naseer) • Israel recaptures • East Jerusalem • West Bank • Gaza Strip • Captures new territory • Sinai • Yom Kippur War – 1973

  15. PLO & Intifada • PLO • Formed – 1964 • Aim : Palestine, with its original Mandate borders, is the indivisible homeland of the Arab Palestinian people • Yasser Arafat • Guerilla Tactics • Fatah Movement • Intifada : Arabic word • Stands for shaking off or shivering because of fear or illness • It also means abrupt and sudden waking up from sleep or unconcerned status. • Politically the word came to symbolize the Palestinian uprising against the Israeli occupation • Civil Disobedience • 1st – 1987 • 2nd – 2000

  16. Hamas • Formed in 1987 • 1st Intifada • Destroy Israel – Establish Palestinian state • Denies Holocaust occurred • Sheikh Ahmad Yassin, Abdel Aziz Rantissi and Mohd. Taha • Activities • Suicide bombings • Rocket attacks (Qassam) • Schools, hospitals, libraries and Social activities • Wins parliamentary elections – 2006 • Hamas -76 seats; Fatah- 43 seats • Conflict between Hamas and Fatah • Hamas defeats Fatah

  17. Hamas – Contd. • Hamas offers 10 year truce • Withdraw from West Bank & East Jerusalem • Right to return for Palestinians • Israel doesn’t respond • 17th June 2008 – Informal truce between Hamas & Israel • Nov 4th – 6 Hamas gunmen killed by Israeli forces • Hamas responds with rocket attacks on Israeli border towns • Israel launches operation ‘Cast Lead’ • Weed out Hamas militants and smash arms hideouts and safe houses • 1000+ civilians dead • Limited Hamas casualties • Human shields and blending into population during conflict

  18. Peace Process • Oslo Accord – 1993 • Camp David – 2000 • Key Features • Ariel Sharon • Mohd Al Durrah Incident • Mitchell report – Basis of the Road Map for peace • Sharm El-Sheikh Fact-Finding Committee Report • an immediate cessation of all violence • rebuilding confidence by a full-scale effort by the Palestinian Authority to prevent Terrorism, the freezing of Israeli settlement activity, ... and other confidence-building measures • resumption of negotiations

  19. Today • There is still much dispute and fighting over land and borders • Hamas and the PLO are still in conflict with Israel • Israel has control over 78% of the former Palestine, rather than the 55% allocated under the UN partition plan • Possible Solutions • Many moderate Arabs want Israeli withdrawal to pre-1967 borders • Hamas (who is in power currently) does not want a peace agreement, rather desires a single Palestinian state • 2 state-solution • 1 state solution • Israel’s “land for peace” deals

  20. Annexure

  21. Balfour Declaration

  22. Zionist Movement • Baron Edmond de Rothschild • ‘the struggle to put an end to the Wandering Jew, could not have as its result, the creation of the Wandering Arab’ • Theodore Herzl • DerJudenstaat – The Jewish State – 1896 • the only solution to the "Jewish Question" in Europe, including growing antisemitism, was through the establishment of a Jewish State • 1897 - Zionist Congress • "If I were to sum up the Congress in a word – which I shall take care not to publish – it would be this: At Basle I founded the Jewish State. If I said this out loud today I would be greeted by universal laughter. In five years perhaps, and certainly in fifty years, everyone will perceive it." • Chaim Weizmann • Rosh Pinna – First Settlement

  23. Zionist Conference – Basel (1897)

  24. Weizmann

  25. Rosh Pinna

  26. Cave of the Patriarchs

  27. Western Wall

  28. Al-Aqsa

  29. Western Wall – Al Aqsa

  30. Foundation Stone

  31. Arab forces

  32. Haganah – Jewish Self Defense Group

  33. Palestine in 1947 • Jewish Settlements in orange • Palestinian-Arab settlements in Yellow

  34. Holocaust-1

  35. Herding of Jews

  36. Concentration Camps-1

  37. Concentration Camps-2

  38. Jewish Immigrants - Palestine

  39. Partition Plan - Map • Pink – Palestine • Orange – Israel • Blue – International Zone

  40. Palestine in 1947 • Jewish Settlements in orange • Palestinian-Arab settlements in Yellow

  41. Invasion Plan

  42. Map – After the 1948 War

  43. Israel before and after the six-day war 1967

  44. Lebanon Golan Heights Syria Israel Jordan Suez Canal Egypt The End of the Yom Kippur War -Green marks Israeli gains

  45. Railroad Cars

  46. Bus - Jewish

  47. Sykes-Picot Agreement

  48. Oslo Accord

  49. Current Settlements

  50. Durrah Incident