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Do not yell out the answer!!! Which of the following most accurately describes the central purpose of the Monroe Doctrine? • A.limits European influence in the Western Hemisphere • B.gains official independence from England • C.establishes the southern border of the US and Mexico • D.establishes the President of the US as the head of the United Nations
Explanation • The Monroe Doctrine was a policy established by the United States in the administration of President James Monroe that sought to limit European influence in the Western Hemisphere. President Monroe's message to Congress put "European Powers" on notice that American continents were off limits to European colonization, and that any attempts to interfere with American lands would be considered the "manifestation of an unfriendly disposition toward the United States."
European Empires in the New World • 300 Years of European Rule • The Spanish (French, Portuguese, Dutch, English) dominated the social, racial and political system • Plantation System – need for labor (slaves)
Key Points • Mercantilism: Plantations in the Colonies (cotton, sugar cane) provide raw materials for mother country • The need for workers results in slavery (the west end of the Triangle Trade / Middle Passage) • Native indigenous population (Indians) are decimated due to disease and murder • Spanish influence in the Americas is significant. (spread of Christianity, culture, customs, language)
Social Hierarchy (Caste System) • Based on Skin Color • Peninsulares (European Born) • Creoles (European descended Latin Americans) • Mestizos & Mulattoes (mixed blood) • Native Indians & African Slaves
Root Causes of Unrest • Growth of Nationalism (pride in one’s nation) • Racial and Social Injustice • European Domination / Exploitation
The “Spark” of Independence • Napoleon’s Invasion of Spain in 1808 ignites widespread revolt across Latin America • Mexican Independence won from Spain 1821 • Creole lead - (European descendants born in the Americas)
Simon Bolivar“The Great Liberator” • Educated in Europe • Admirer of the Ideals of the French Revolution “I swear before God and by my honor never to allow my hands to be idle nor my soul to rest until I have broken the chains that bind us to Spain.”
Bolivar in South America1800 - 1825 • 1810 uprising establishes a new Republic in his native Venezuela • 1819 New Granada (Columbia) freed • By 1821 – Ecuador, Peru, and Bolivia are free of Spanish rule
Dreams and Disappointments • By 1824 wars of independence are over • Bolivar’s dream of “one nation” - Gran Columbia - splits into 3 nations (Venezuela, Columbia, Ecuador) • Power struggles and localrivalries trigger violent civil war • Years of military juntas & continued oppression of the common people