Reptiles: The First Amniotes - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Reptiles: The First Amniotes

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  1. Reptiles: The First Amniotes

  2. Amniotic egg • Have embryonic membranes that protect the embryo from desiccation, cushion the embryo, promote gas transfer and store waste materials • Have leathery or hard shells that protect the embryo, albumen that cushions and provides moisture and nutrients fro the embryo, has a yolk that supplies food to the embryo • Distinguishes the reptiles, birds and mammals from other vertebrates

  3. Amnion: encloses the embryo in a fluid filled sac and protects against shock and desiccation Chorion: aids in gas exchange Allantois: stores N-waste Yolk: embryo develops at the surface Amniotic egg

  4. 7 examples of reptiles

  5. Turtles represent this lineage Form of their skull and shell is recognizable in 200-million year old fossils and as far back as 245 million year old rocks in South Africa Subclass #1: Anapsida

  6. Galapagos Tortoise • Vulnerable • Can be up to 880 lbs and 6 ft long • Can live up to 100 yrs in the wild and 170 yrs in captivity • #s are decreasing due to hunting, habitat destruction and the introduction of non-native species

  7. Include modern snakes, lizards and tuataras (Lepidosauromorpha) Archosauromorpha (a subgroup) includes dinosaurs and most are extinct Archosaurs: Include crocodilians and birds (dinosaurs closest living relatives) Subclass #2: Diapsida

  8. No members of this group survive today Important because therapsids (a group of synapsids) gave rise to the mammals Subclass #3: Synapsida

  9. Characteristics of reptiles • Dry skin with keratinized epidermal scales • Keratin is a resisitant protein used for protectiveness and prevents water loss • Live on all continents except Antartica

  10. Turtles 300 species of turtles Have long life spans Large tortoises may live in excess of 100 years Tortoises are entirely terrestial Order Testudines

  11. All turtles are oviparous (lay eggs that develop outside of the body) Females use their hindlimbs to excavate nests in the soil They lay and cover with soil clutches of 5 to 100 eggs Development takes 4 weeks to a year and the parent does not attend to the eggs during the time Order Testudines

  12. Snapping turtle • One of the largest freshwater turtles • Makes a hissing sound when in danger or feels threatened • Has a powerful jaw and a highly mobile head • Live up to 47 yrs in captivity and up to 30 years in the wild • Omnivores • Live in shallow ponds, lakes and streams • A popular ingredient in turtle soup

  13. Alligator snapping turtle • Vulnerable • Largest freshwater turtle in North America • Can be up to 249 lbs • Average is 175 lbs and 26 in in length •

  14. Sea Turtles • Endangered • Marine reptiles • Found everywhere except in the Artic • Almost always submerged so they have an anaerobic system for breathing • Hawksbill sea turtle

  15. Sea Turtle continued • Have large lungs so they can have rapid gas exchange • Emerge from the water to breed • The female will lay eggs under the sand • The temp of the sand determines the gender of the offspring • Green sea turtle

  16. More sea turtles • The lighter the sand, the increase of temperature, the lower the incubation time females • Immune to the sting of the box jellyfish • Flatback sea turtle

  17. Lights, Camera, Sea Turtles • •

  18. More Sea Turtle videos • •

  19. More sea turtles • •

  20. American Boxing turtles • Usually kept as pets • Can live up to 50 years • Omnivores • Dig holes to winter in • Eat invertebrates and vegetation

  21. Webbed feet with long claws Found in Africa & America Flat shells Dwells in water 20-40 years Kept as pets Short and sturdy feet with bent legs Found in asia and africa Large dome shells Dwells on land 80-150 years Not kept as pets Turtles vs. Tortoises

  22. Turtles vs. tortoises

  23. Carapace: the dorsal portion of the shell, keratin cover the bones of the carapace Plastron: the ventral portion of the shell, keratin cover the bones of the plastron Carapace, plastron

  24. Alligator facts • Transparent third eyelid gives underwater protection. • 80 teeth; 40 top, 40 bottom • Teeth are conical; used for grabbing and holding, not for cutting. • Young alligators can replace teeth every year or so. • Mother 'gators will care for their young for up to two years. • Use feet to swim slow and to keep balance in water; use tail to swim fast • 4-chambered heart • Integumentary sense organs on jaws, nose, around eyes and on upper palate • Egg tooth; a toughened bit of epidermis on the tip of a hatchling’s nose, which allows it to break out of its egg; it is absorbed a few weeks after hatching

  25. Hibernate Males up to 14 ft More docile Rounded snout Show fewer teeth when the mouth is closed Fresh water Grayish black Don’t hibernate Males 19+ ft More aggressive Pointed snout Show more teeth when the mouth is closed Brackish water Light tan to brown Alligator vs. Crocodile

  26. Alligators vs. Crocodiles

  27. Tuaturas Superficially unchanged from their extinct relatives that were present at the beginning of the Mesozoic era Present only on remote offshore islands and are protected by New Zealand law Feed on insects or occasionally small invertebrates at dusk and dawn Order Sphenodonitda

  28. Ovipoarous: organism lays eggs that develop outside the body of the female Ovoviviparous: organisms lay eggs that develop within the female reproductive tract and that are nourished by food stored in the egg Viviparous: organisms with eggs that develop within the female reproductive tract and are nourished by the female Order Squamata

  29. Usually have 2 pairs of legs Vary from a few cm to 3 m Geckos: short and stout/ nocturnal/ adapted for night vision/ have adhesive disks to aid in clinging to trees and walls Order SquamataSuborder Sauria: The lizards

  30. Robust bodies, short necks, and distinct heads Marine iguanas in the Galapagos and the flying dragons of Southeast Asia Order SquamataSuborder Sauria-iguanias

  31. Flying Dragon •

  32. Live mainly in Africa and India Adapted to aboreal lifestyles Use a long, sticky tongues to capture insects Can change color in response to illumination, temperature or their behavioral state Chameleons

  33. Gila monsters and the Mexican beaded lizard are the only venomous lizards Venom is released into grooves on the surface of teeth and introduced into prey as the lizard chews Gila monsters

  34. About 2900 species About 300 species are venomous Most are oviparous Upper and lower jaws are loosely joined so that each half can move independently of each other Suborder Serpentes—The snakes

  35. King Cobras • World’s longest venomous snakes • Can be up to 18.5 feet and 13 pounds • Skin: olive green, tan or black • Cream belly and smooth scales

  36. King cobras • Can live up to 20 years • Use their forked tongue to pick up the scent of prey then finds its location by flicked its tongue and using its eye sight • •

  37. More king cobras • Cobra swallows its prey whole • Venom can kill a healthy human in 30-45 minutes • Reproduction: female builds a nest to incubate its eggs (20-40) when they are about to hatch the female leaves and gets prey so that it is not tempted to eat the young • •

  38. King Cobras •

  39. Garter Snake • Most widely distributed snake in North America • Meat eaters • Follow pheremone scented trails to find other snakes • Reproduction: stop eating for 2 weeks before mating, the female attracts male with pheremones, the female can store the males sperm for years, the young incubate in the lower abdomen and snakes give birth to live young, 3-80 are born at a time

  40. Sidewinder rattlesnake • Venomous • Move in a J-shape • Nocturnal in the hot months • Diurnal all the rest of the year • Homeothermy when first born

  41. Sidewinder •

  42. Boas • Example: anaconda • Large nonvenomous snakes • Aquatic

  43. Anacondas • •

  44. pythons • Nonvenomous snakes • Ambush predators • Constrictors • Lay eggs

  45. Vipers • Venomous snakes • Long hinged fangs which are used to inject venom into their prey • Nocturnal • Ambush • Give birth to young

  46. Snake videos • • •

  47. About 135 species Specialized burrowers that live in soils in Africa, South America, the Caribbean and the Mideast Legless and their skulls are shovel shaped Feed on worms and small insects and are oviparous Suborder Amphisbaenia—Worm Lizards

  48. Tyrannosaurus Rex • Found in western north America • 67 to 65.5 million years ago • Bipedal carnivore • 42 ft in length and 68 metric tons • Skulls up to 5 ft in length • Endothermic • Could eat 500 pounds of meat in one bite

  49. Maiasaurs • Live in herds • Bipedal or quadpedal • Herbivores • 3-4 tons • Eats 200 lbs of food per day • 25-30 feet • Duck billed • Lived 74 million years ago • Found in what is now Montana

  50. Eoraptor • Small meat eater • 231 million years ago • 22 pounds and 3 feet long • omnivore