Chapter 21 guidelines • 17.2 Origins of Progressive reform: municipal, state, and national • 17.3 Roosevelt, Taft, and Wilson as Progressive presidents • 17.4 Women's roles: family, workplace, education, politics, and reform • 17.5 Black America: urban migration and civil rights initiatives
The Progressive Eracirca. 1900 - 1916 Roots of “Progressive” Reforms Industrialization / Wage Labor Unregulated Capitalism Urbanization Immigration Muckraker Journalism Populism Social Darwinism
WHY? What Goals? • The desire to remove corruption and undue influence from government through the taming of bosses and political machines • The effort to include more people more directly in the political process (What would Hamilton say?!) • The conviction that government must (must?!!) play a role to solve social problems and establish fairness (who decides??) in economic matters.
UNDERSTAND THIS (!!!) It is the Progressive ERA. It is not a single Progressive Movement, but “progressive” movementS. Progressives never spoke with one mind, and differed sharply over the most effective means to deal with the ills. Look at these!! • Government Reform: • Local, State, National • Alcohol • Women’s Suffrage • Poverty • Urban Housing • Sanitation • Education • Eugenics • Monopolies • Labor Issues • Black Civil Rights • Prostitution • Taxation • Police Protection • Fire Safety • Birth Control • Imperialism
MUCKRAKER JOURNALISM:Unveiling America’s Social Ills • Jacob Riis, How the Other Half Lives • Ida Tarbell, The History of Standard Oil • Lincoln Steffens, The Shame of the Cities • Helen Hunt Jackson, A Century of Dishonor • Upton Sinclair, The Jungle
Progressive Presidents Theodore Roosevelt William Taft Woodrow Wilson
T.R.’s Square Deal • Limiting the power of trusts. • (regulating monopolies) • 2. Promoting public health and safety. • (consumer protection) • Conservation of Natural Resources • (mining and national parks)
Wilson’s New Freedom 1913 - 1919 Progressive Acts The Federal Reserve Act Underwood-Simmons Tariff Graduated Income Tax Federal Trade Commission Clayton Anti-Trust Act Farm Loan Act Warehouse Act Workman’s Compensation Act Child Labor Law (8 hr day) The Progressive Amendments 16th Income Tax 17th Direct Election of Senators 18th Prohibition 19th Women’s Suffrage
Review • Progressivism grew out of the problems produced by the industrial age • The presidency became a force behind progressivism • T. Roosevelt, W. Taft, Woodrow Wilson • Social Ills, Political Corruption, Corporate America were all targets of progressive reforms • There was no single Progressive Movement • The era changed forever how the Constitution would be interpreted and how people would view the role of government • This is the birth of modern liberalism
Essay questions • 1. “The Progressive movement of 1901-1917 was a triumph of conservatism rather than a victory for liberalism.” Assess the validity of this statement. • 2. To what extent did the United States achieve the objectives that led it to enter the First World War? • 3. In what ways did economic conditions and developments in the arts and entertainment help create the reputation of the 1920's as the Roaring Twenties?
Chapter 22 guidelines • 18.2 War in Europe and American neutrality • 18.3 The First World War at home and abroad • 18.4 Treaty of Versailles • 18.5 Society and economy in the postwar years
American Neutrality Paragraph 1: “As the great powers of Europe mobilized for war…and formally began fighting in August of 1914, the US recoiled in disbelief, incredulous that the civilized nations should thus stumble into fratricide…” What does this quote reveal about America’s view of itself and its expectations of European nations as well as world order?
American Neutrality • President Wilson issued a formal proclamation of neutrality and urged citizens to be “impartial in thought as well as in action.” • Text quote: “In practice, powerful cultural, political, and economic factors made the impartiality advocated by Wilson impossible.”
American Neutrality • Trade with the Allies “shot up” from $824 million in 1914 to $3.2 billion in 1916; by 1917, loans to the Allies exceeded $2.5 billion compared to loans to the Central Powers of $27 million. • May 7, 1915, a German U-boat sank the British liner Lusitania near Ireland, killing 1,198 people, including 128 Americans.
Chapter 23 guidelines • 19.1 The business of America and the consumer economy • 19.2 Republican politics: Harding, Coolidge, Hoover • 19.3 The culture of Modernism: science, the arts, and entertainment • 19.4 Responses to Modernism: religious fundamentalism, nativism, and Prohibition • 19.5 The ongoing struggle for equality: African Americans and women
America needs a “return to normalcy” First election after World War I. First election after Red Scare and Palmer Raids. First election after the influenza epidemic of 1918-19. http://www.archives.gov/exhibits/influenza-epidemic/ http://www.pbs.org/wgbh/amex/influenza/ http://nmhm.washingtondc.museum/collections/archives/agalleries/1918flu/1918flu.html
Timeline 1920s • 1920 19th Amendment • 1920 Harding Elected • 1922 Naval Conference • 1924 Coolidge Elected • 1925 Scopes Trial • 1927 Lindbergh • 1928 Hoover Elected • 1929 CRASH THEMES • Republicans • Conservative 20s • Liberal 20s • Isolation? • AUTOMOBILE • Radio, electricity • Flappers • CREDIT / Wall Street • Farming • Harlem Renaissance
Chapter 24 guidelines • 20.1 Causes of the Great Depression • 20.2 The Hoover administration's response • 20.3 Franklin Delano Roosevelt and the • New Deal • 20.4 Labor and union recognition • 20.5 The New Deal coalition and its critics from the Right and the Left • 20.6 Surviving hard times: American society during the Great Depression
Hard Times • “No event of the twentieth century had a more profound impact on American life than the Great Depression. Statistics can document a slumping economy, mass unemployment, and swelling relief rolls -- but these numbers tell only part of the story. The emotional and psychological toll of these years, what one writer called ‘the invisible scar,’ must also be considered in understanding the worst economic crisis in American history.”
Great Depression: Hoover/FDR Hoover (‘s failure) • Reconstruction Finance Corp • Bonus Army • Emergency Relief Act (Democrats) FDR • New Deal • Alphabet Soup • 1st / 2nd New Deals • Dust Bowl • Left and Right • Roosevelt Recession • Court Packing • WWII ends Depression
Essay questions • 1. The economic policies of the federal government from 1921 to 1929 were responsible for the nation's depression of the 1930's. Assess the validity of this generalization. • 2. The New Deal showed a continuation of the goals and strategies of the Progressive movement of the earlier 20th century. Assess the validity of this statement. • 3. Analyze the ways in which the Great Depression altered the American social fabric in the 1930's. • 4. To what extent and why did the United States adopt an isolationist policy in the 1920's and 1930's?
Chapter 25 guidelines • 21.1 The rise of fascism and militarism in Japan, Italy, • and Germany • 21.2 Prelude to war: policy of neutrality • 21.3 The attack on Pearl Harbor and United States declaration of war • 21.4 Fighting a multifront war • 21.5 Diplomacy, war aims, and wartime conferences
Chapter 25 guidelines (part II) • 21.6 The United States as a global power in the Atomic Age • 22.1 Wartime mobilization of the economy • 22.2 Urban migration and demographic changes • 22.3 Women, work, and family during the war • 22.4 Civil liberties and civil rights during wartime • 22.5 War and regional development • 22.6 Expansion of government power
The most important contributing factor? • “The seeds of new conflicts had been sown in World War I. For many nations, peace had brought not prosperity but revolution fueled by economic depression and struggle.” - Book • “Within 15 years of war’s end, totalitarianism, a new word for a system that rejected the liberalism and constitutionalism which had inspired European politics since the eclipse of monarchy in 1789, was almost everywhere on the rise.” - Keegan
Timeline 1922 - 1939 • 1920s “Isolationism” • 1930s Rise of Fascism • Appeasement (Munich) • 1935-37 Neutrality Acts • Nye Commission • Quarantine Speech • 1939 WWII Begins • America First 1940 - 41 • Destroyers for Bases • Cash and Carry • Selective Service Act • Lend-Lease • Freezing of Japanese Assets • Cutting off Oil and Metal Trade with Japan • Atlantic Charter
US in WWII • 1941 Pearl Harbor • 1942 Midway / Island Hopping • 1943 North Africa • 1944 D-Day • 1945 Iwo Jima, Okinawa, Yalta, V-E Day, Potsdam, Manhattan Project, Atomic Bomb, V-J Day Don’t forget “Minorities in WWII” as a topic
Essay question • Analyze the home-front experiences of TWO of the following groups during the Second World War. African Americans Japanese Americans Jewish Americans Mexican Americans