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Chapter 53 Community Ecology PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 53 Community Ecology

Chapter 53 Community Ecology

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Chapter 53 Community Ecology

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  1. Chapter 53 Community Ecology

  2. Community Ecology • The study of the interactions between the species in an area.

  3. Community Hypothesis 1. Individualistic 2. Interactive

  4. Individualistic Hypothesis • H.A. Gleason • Community as a chance assemblage of species because of similar abiotic requirements.

  5. Interactive Hypothesis • F.E. Clements • Community as a linked assemblage of species that function as an integrated whole.

  6. Predictions • Individualistic - fuzzy borders • Interactive - sharp borders • Robert Whittaker – tested the two ideas against each other.

  7. Results • If abiotic factors form a continuum, then borders are fuzzy. • Individualistic Hypothesis is correct.

  8. Comment • Abiotic factors may form sharp borders. • Ex: soil types • Result – the Community may look very much like the Interactive Hypothesis.

  9. Interspecific Interactions • Interaction between species. • May be positive, negative, or neutral. • Ex: 1. Coevolution 2. Predation 3. Mimicry 4. Competition 5. Symbiosis

  10. When two species have reciprocal evolution to each other. Ex: Flowers and their pollinators. Coevolution

  11. Predator and prey relationships. Ex – Lynx and Hares Predation (+/-)

  12. Predation • Often results in interesting defenses or adaptations. • Ex: • Plant defenses • Cryptic coloration • Aposematic coloration

  13. Cryptic Coloration • A passive defense where the prey is camouflaged against its environment.

  14. The use of conspicuous colors in toxic or unpalatable organisms to warn off predators. poison arrow frogs Aposematic Coloration

  15. Mimicry • Defense mechanism where the mimic has a resemblance to another species, the model. • Types: • Batesian • Mullerian

  16. Batesian Mimicry • Palatable species mimics an unpalatable model. Hawk moth larva Snake

  17. Mullerian Mimicry • Two unpalatable species resemble each other. Yellow Jacket Cuckoo Bee

  18. Competition • When two species rely on the same limiting resource. • Intraspecific competition usually more severe than Interspecific competition. • Why?

  19. Competitive Exclusion Principle • Predicts that two species with the same requirement can not co-exist in the same community. • One species will survive and the second will go extinct.

  20. Ecological Niche • The n-hyperspace of requirements for a species. • How a species “fits into” an ecosystem. • Species can not have niche overlap, the Competitive Exclusion Principle

  21. Niche Types 1. Fundamental - what a species is theoretically capable of using. 2. Realized - what a species can actually use.

  22. Homework • Read – Chapter 55, 53 • Chapter 52 - today • Productivity lab – next lab period • Lab – Animal Behavior

  23. Resource Partitioning • A way that species avoid niche overlap by splitting up the available resources. • Ex: Anolis lizards

  24. A. distichus A. insolitus

  25. Symbiosis • When two different species live together in direct contact. • Types: 1. Parasitism 2. Commensalism 3. Mutualism

  26. Parasitism (+/-) • Parasite harms the host. • Parasites may be external or internal. • Well adapted parasites don't kill the host.

  27. Parasitic behavior: A female Nasonia vitripennis laying a clutch of eggs into the pupa of a blowfly (Phormia regina)

  28. One partner benefits while the other is unchanged. Ex. – Cattle and Egrets Commensalism (+/o)

  29. Both partners benefit from the interaction. Ex: Pollinators and flowers Mutualism (+/+) Acacia Tree and Ants

  30. Changes in species composition over time. Succession

  31. Succession Stages • Sere: unstable stage usually replaced by another community. • Climax: stable stage, self-reproducing.

  32. Succession Types 1. Primary 2. Secondary

  33. Primary Succession • Building a community from a lifeless area. • Ex: volcanic islands glaciated areas road cuts

  34. Comment • The first example of primary succession was worked out on the Indiana Dunes. • Stages: • Open Beach • Beach Grasses • Conifers (Junipers and Pines) • Oaks • Beech-Maple forest (Climax)

  35. Secondary Succession • Where a community has been disturbed and the soil is mostly intact. • Ex: • Cutting down a forest • Blow-outs on the Dunes

  36. Causes of Succession 1. Autogenic Factors 2. Allogenic Factors

  37. Autogenic Factors • Changes introduced by the organisms themselves. • Ex: toxins acids

  38. Outside disturbances Ex: Fire Floods Allogenic Factors

  39. Prairie Succession in Oklahoma - Stages 1. Annual Weeds 2. Triple-Awn Grass 3. Bunch Grass 4. Climax: Tall-grass Prairie

  40. Annual Weed Stage • Lasts 2-3 years. • Very robust growth (1-2 m). • Species: Sunflower Pigweed Lamb's Quarter

  41. Annual Weed Stage

  42. Annual Weed Stage

  43. Annual Weed Stage

  44. Annual Weed Stage

  45. Triple-Awn Stage • Lasts 10 - 50 years. • Very poor growth (5-12 cm). • Species: Triple-Awn Grass

  46. Triple Awn Stage

  47. Question • How can Triple-Awn replace the more robust annual weeds?