Section 1:Democratic Governments Section 2:Authoritarian Governments Section 3:Economic Systems Chapter 15: Comparative Political and Economic Systems
Section 1 at a Glance • Democratic Governments • Emerging Democracy in Nigeria Learn about the difficult transition to democracy in Nigeria. • Learn about the different ways in which democratic governments can be organized, including those of Mexico, Brazil, the United Kingdom, and Japan. You will also learn about some of the world’s emerging democracies. • Choosing a System of Government Use your knowledge to decide which form of government is best for an emerging democracy.
Democratic Governments Reading Focus Today many of the world’s countries are democracies. Democracies consist of two basic forms of government: presidential and parliamentary. All democratic governments share certain characteristics, but no two governments are exactly alike.
Emerging Democracy in Nigeria Colonization and Independence Originally a British colony, Nigeria gained its independence in 1960. Its first system of government was a parliamentary system. A Fragile Democracy After years of conflict, Nigeria adopted a new constitution in the 1970s, but this did not end the conflicts. After several new constitutions and elections, General Olusegun Obasanjo was elected president in 1999. In 2007 Nigerians elected a new president, although most Nigerians still do not trust that the election was fair.
WHAT DO YOU THINK? 1. How did democracy cause change within Nigeria? 2. What signs give reason for hope for Nigeria’s political future? 3. What system of government does Nigeria have today?
Democratic Systems • Governments categorized by how governmental power is distributed • Authoritarian government: power is held by single leader or small group • Democracy: power is held mostly by people (voters) • Democracy can be either presidential or parliamentary system • Democracies have social welfare policies to improve lives of citizens • Democracies protect basic human rights • Democracies can withstand major crises
Summarizing What are the basic features of democratic systems? Answer(s):social welfare policies; protection of basic human rights; can withstand war, economic trouble, or civil unrest
Mexico’s Government Brazil’s Government • The Three Branches • Similar to United States: three branches of government; different in that three-fifths of legislature is elected; remaining seats distributed to major parties in proportion to votes received • Politics and Economy • PAN party has won last two presidential elections • The Three Branches • Similar to United States: three branches of government; different in that its judicial system has two Supreme Courts • Politics and Economy • Four major political parties Mexico and Brazil Mexico and Brazil are both democracies with a presidential system of government.
Comparing and Contrasting How are the governments of Mexico and Brazil similar and different? Answer(s):possible answer—Both are presidential democracies with powers separated into three branches. In Mexico some legislative seats are given to major parties, unlike Brazil where all seats are filled by direct election. Brazil’s supreme court consists of two courts, whereas Mexico has a single supreme court.
The United Kingdom’s Government Japan’s Government • Constitutional monarchy • Parliament made up of two houses; seats held by members of several parties; members must form coalition • Leader of majority party is prime minister • Japan’s government is unitary with bicameral legislature—the Diet • Head of state is emperor; largely ceremonial position The United Kingdom and Japan The United Kingdom and Japan are both democracies with a parliamentary system of government.
Comparing In what ways is Japan’s government similar to that of the United Kingdom? Answer(s):Both are parliamentary democracies with unitary systems of government, bicameral legislatures, and ceremonial heads of state.
Emerging Democracies Latin America Several countries, such as Argentina and Chile, have moved toward establishing constitutional democracies. • Africa • Many countries are struggling to establish democracies. South Africa ended apartheid and established a democracy in the early 1990s. • Asia • Many countries are struggling to make the transition from colony to democracy. Cambodia has overcome a violent transition to become a constitutional monarchy with an elected parliament.
Summarizing Give examples of emerging democracies in Latin America, Africa, and Asia. Answer(s):possible answer—Chile, Guatemala, Nigeria, South Africa, Indonesia, Cambodia
SimulationChoosing a System of Government What system of government is best for an emerging democracy? A nation emerging from a period of authoritarian rule or control by another country must decide which form of democratic government to establish. Using what you learned in Section 1, complete the simulation to make a decision about whether to establish a presidential system or a parliamentary system in a fictional nation.
Simulation (cont’d.) • Roles • Interim president, who will serve as the convention’s moderator • Delegates to the constitutional convention
Simulation (cont’d.) • Background • Civil war ended several months ago • Interim president has called constitutional convention, will serve as moderator • Centralia has many different ethnic groups
Simulation (cont’d.) • The Convention • Delegates who favor presidential system think strong central government will be able to fight warlords • Delegates who favor parliamentary system fear return to authoritarian rule • Interim president supports presidential system
Simulation (cont’d.) The Decision Delegates must vote, considering the following: – Biggest threats – Strengths and weaknesses of each type of system – Effect of current conditions on each type of system
Simulation (cont’d.) Debriefing After the delegates vote, consider Nigeria’s choice of a parliamentary system of government after gaining independence. Do you think Nigeria made the right decision?
Section 2 at a Glance • Authoritarian Governments • Totalitarian Rule in North Korea Learn about life under North Korea’s authoritarian government. • Learn about essential features of authoritarian systems, including past governments in the Soviet Union, Chile, Italy, and Germany, and contemporary governments in China and Saudi Arabia. • Overthrowing a Dictator Use your knowledge to determine how best to remove a dictator from power.
Authoritarian Governments Reading Focus Democracy has spread throughout the world in recent decades, but some countries are still under the rule of authoritarian governments. Citizens in these countries have little control over their own government and, in some cases, over their very lives.
Totalitarian Rule in North Korea A Totalitarian Dictatorship Occupied after World II by the Soviet Union, its first government was based in part after the Soviet Communist system. Its first president, Kim Il Sung, became a totalitarian dictator. Upon his death in 1994, his son Kim Jong Il took over power. An Isolated Nation Its government allows its citizens little contact with the outside world. Known for its violations of civil and human rights, the government spends heavily on its military, while many citizens live in poverty. In spite of this, North Korea rarely accepts foreign aid.
WHAT DO YOU THINK? 1. How does the North Korean constitution’s promise of democratic processes match with reality? 2. What role does the cult of personality surrounding North Korea’s leader play in the country’s system of government? 3. Why is North Korea isolated from other nations?
Types of Authoritarian Systems Features of Authoritarian Systems • Theocracy: religious leaders rule government • Dictatorship: most common type of authoritarian government • Totalitarianism: government controls nearly all aspects of life • Civil rights not recognized • Force used to put down opposition • Governments not limited by law • Governments can make rapid changes to society Authoritarian Systems In an authoritarian system, citizens have no way to influence or improve the government.
Summarizing What are the types and features of authoritarian governments? Answer(s):theocracy, dictatorship, totalitarian system; few or no protections of citizens rights, no effective citizen participation in government, opposition suppressed, government not limited by law
The Soviet Union China • After leading overthrow of Russia’s ruler (czar), Vladimir Lenin established Soviet Union • Lenin believed in communism, economic and political system in which government owns all property and plans economy • Government power not limited by new constitution • Stalin worked toward making Soviet Union into totalitarian state • China after Mao Deng Xiaoping brought economic, political reforms • China’s Government Today Chinese Communist Party (CCP) rules; Central Committee of CCP elect members of Politburo • Two entities make up government • – State Council has most power • – National People’s Congress The Soviet Union and China The Soviet Union and China are two authoritarian nations that rose to prominence in the 1990s.
Comparing and Contrasting How is China’s government similar to and different from the Soviet Union’s government? Answer(s):possible answer—Both are/were Communist regimes in which a single party monopolizes power and suppresses dissent. China’s government, in contrast to the Soviet Union, has two main bodies, one of which consists of representatives elected by local people’s congresses.
Other Authoritarian Nations • Chile Currently democratic, with several past periods of violent authoritarian governments • Fascist Italy and Nazi Germany Italy’s Benito Mussolini promoted fascism, which glorifies the state over individual needs; in WW II, Mussolini allied with Germany’s Adolf Hitler • Saudi Arabia Led by monarch who must follow the Qur’an; government spends heavily on social program and military; Saudi Arabia one of strongest U.S. allies in Middle East
Making Inferences Why do you think that many authoritarian governments are no longer in power? Answer(s):possible answer—The spread of democratic principles around the world has created stronger opposition to authoritarian regimes.
SimulationOverthrowing a Dictator What is the best way to get rid of a tyrant? Even in an authoritarian system, the people sometimes can have great political power. Using what you have learned in Section 2, complete the simulation to determine the best way to remove a dictator from power.
Simulation (cont’d.) • Roles • Prodemocracy activists who oppose Mendoza’s dictator • Officers in the Mendoza army who oppose the ruler and who control roughly half of the country’s armed forces • Leaders of Mendoza’s major religious organizations who have protested the dictator’s human rights abuses • Historian with knowledge of recent uprisings against dictators
The Crisis The Decision • Bowing to outside pressure, Gray agreed to hold elections • Gray announced he was the winner; outside observers disagreed • Protestors were violently subdued • Opposition leaders meet to consider overthrowing Gray: • Should they lead an armed uprising against Gray? • Should they appeal for assistance from the United Nations? • Would the military and public support them? Simulation (cont’d.) The Situation Current president Edward Gray, democratically elected 10 years ago, has declared a national emergency and given himself dictatorial powers.
Simulation (cont’d.) Debriefing After the people at the secret meeting agree upon their course of action, write a detailed explanation of the group’s reasoning. What was the thinking behind the decision?
Section 3 at a Glance • Economic Systems • A Changing India Learn about the impact of recent economic changes in India. • Learn about the world’s different economic systems. • Negotiating a Trade Agreement Use your knowledge to negotiate a trade agreement between two fictional countries.
Economic Systems Reading Focus Economic systems can be characterized by three basic types: traditional, market, and command. Nearly all nations today have mixed economies, meaning they have some combination of traditional, market, and command features.
A Changing India Independence and Beyond After winning independence from Great Britain, India’s government leaders used socialist policies in order to encourage economic growth. India and the Free Market During the economic slowdown of the 1960s and 1970s, India’s government leaders turned more toward a free market economy. Their policies were successful. India now has a booming economy, although 30 percent of the population live in poverty.