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Indexicality, Quotation & the 18 th Century Novel PowerPoint Presentation
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Indexicality, Quotation & the 18 th Century Novel

Indexicality, Quotation & the 18 th Century Novel

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Indexicality, Quotation & the 18 th Century Novel

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  1. Indexicality, Quotation & the 18th Century Novel Michael Johnson Hong Kong University

  2. Outline • The Varieties of Q-Mark Functions • Context-Sensitive Expressions in Reported Speech • The Monster Approach • Q-Marks and the 18th Century Novel • The Punctuation Theory of Quotation • Indexical Resolution • Conclusion

  3. 1. The Varieties of Q-Mark Functions

  4. More so than most words, “as” can be translated to Spanish in many ways. [pure quotes] • O’Keefe hasnow put out a music video, complete with “dancing” and “singing.” [scare quotes] • Bad, hurtful, “just get over it Amar!” jokes aside, it's clear that these two small market franchises have plenty of old and new connections that tie us together. [modifier quotes] • As X notes in the comments, it's not fake as in “created by photoshop”, but it IS fake in the sense of being added as an ironic joke by a company known for such things. [meaning quotes]

  5. Greengrocer’s Quotes

  6. Q-Marks • There is a great need for extra-linguistic marks to indicate a variety of things. • However, there is a paucity of such marks. • Inverted double-commas are frequently pressed into this wide variety of services, which have little to do with each other. • Let’s call these inverted double-commas Q-Marks,to distinguish them from their function, which is only sometimes quotation.

  7. A Brief History of Q-Marks Ancient Greek editors used a symbol called the diple to mark out interesting passages, the way we use underlining or highlighting:

  8. Not for Mortals In Luther’s translation of the bible, quotation marks appear around passages of the old testament that re-appear in the new testament, and around words that Jesus spoke– but not around words that anyone else speaks. “Quotation quintessentially pertained to the scriptures… it was not for the speech of ordinary mortals” --Finnegan

  9. Commonplace/ Copypasta Markers “Commonplace markers, which were used from the sixteenth to the eighteenth centuries, are punctuation marks that indicate a passage is worth copying: these were sometimes included by the author, translator, or printer, and could also be added by readers… “As their name implies, commonplace markers point out commonplaces (sometimes called sententiae): words of wisdom or well-phrased ideas. These maxims are generally short enough to be easily memorized or quickly jotted into a personal miscellany or commonplace book.” --Estil

  10. Today’s Topic I’m interested in the semantics, or lack thereof, of Q-Marks used for quotation of reported speech, mortal or otherwise. I’ll return to the history in a moment.

  11. 2. Context-Sensitive Expressions in Reported Speech

  12. Context-Sensitive Expressions -- “Jeter Takes Advantage, So Does the American League,” Tyler Kepner, NY Times, July 16, 2014. • After beginning with a serious assessment of Wainwright’s pitches, Jeter pivoted suddenly. “I don’t know, man,” he said, to laughter.

  13. What Does ‘I’ Refer To? -- “Jeter Takes Advantage, So Does the American League,” Tyler Kepner, NY Times, July 16, 2014. • After beginning with a serious assessment of Wainwright’s pitches, Jeter pivoted suddenly. “I don’t know, man,” he said, to laughter.

  14. One Possible Thesis Q-Marks in reported speech are just like pure quotes: the words occurring within them are not used but rather merely mentioned. The ‘I’ that Kepner wrote does not refer to Jeter; it refers to the word ‘I.’ Kepner is telling you that Jeter used the word ‘I.’

  15. Evidence That Words Are Used in Quotes First Piece: if these quotes are merely mentioned, we predict semantic impossibilities where there are none, and readings that don’t exist: Quine said that quotation “… has a certain anomalous feature.”* He described the 2-iron as being “very important and instrumental in my success here.”

  16. Second Piece of Evidence

  17. More Evidence: Anaphora The Stanley Cup Final hasn't ended in a sweep since 1998, when the Detroit Red Wings did it against the Washington Capitals. “Nothing is done, nothing is finished,” Quick said. “We still have a lot of work to do.” Not as much as they would have had if Quick didn't come through with a vintage performance. -- “Kings blank Rangers, move within one win of Cup,” Dan Rosen, nhl.com June 10, 2014.

  18. More Evidence: Anaphora The Stanley Cup Final hasn't ended in a sweep since 1998, when the Detroit Red Wings did it against the Washington Capitals. “Nothing is done, nothing is finished,” Quick said. “We still have a lot of work to do.” Not as much as they would have had if Quick didn't come through with a vintage performance. -- “Kings blank Rangers, move within one win of Cup,” Dan Rosen, nhl.com June 10, 2014.

  19. More Evidence: Anaphora The Stanley Cup Final hasn't ended in a sweep since 1998, when the Detroit Red Wings did it against the Washington Capitals. “Nothing is done, nothing is finished,” Quick said. “We still have a lot of work to do.” Not as much as they would have had if Quick didn't come through with a vintage performance. -- “Kings blank Rangers, move within one win of Cup,” Dan Rosen, nhl.com June 10, 2014.

  20. More Evidence: Anaphora The Stanley Cup Final hasn't ended in a sweep since 1998, when the Detroit Red Wings did it against the Washington Capitals. “Nothing is done, nothing is finished,” Quick said. “We still have a lot of work to do.” Not as much as they would have had if Quick didn't come through with a vintage performance. -- “Kings blank Rangers, move within one win of Cup,” Dan Rosen, nhl.com June 10, 2014.

  21. 3. The Monster Approach

  22. The Monster Approach Q-Marks in reported speech are, or articulate, context-shifting operators. ⟦ Jeter said “I don’t know” ⟧C = There is some context C*, such that in C* Jeter said ⟦ I don’t know ⟧C*

  23. For the Back of Your Mind Notice that the monster approach says that the truth-conditions of Jeter said “I don’t know.” have nothing to do with the words Jeter used.

  24. Monsters

  25. A Point about Kaplanian Monsters Kaplan’s argument against the existence of monsters was simply that there weren’t any. He didn’t think quotation counted because he thought it involved pure mention.

  26. Kaplan on Quotation “There is a way to control an indexical, to keep it from taking primary scope, and even to refer it to another context (this amounts to changing its character). Use quotation marks. If we mention the indexical rather than use it we can, of course, operate directly on it.”

  27. I’m going to argue that the monster approach is wrong, and present an alternative theory of quotation and the resolution of context-sensitive expressions therein.

  28. 4. Q-Marks & the 18th C. Novel

  29. History Cont’d In the 16th and 17th Centuries, Q-Marks performing the functions of commonplaces and quotation existed alongside one another. But there was no standard. Some authors (editors/ printers/ etc.) used no Q-Marks; some used only commonplaces or only quotations; in some texts, identical marks appear at different places with different functions.

  30. The Rise of the Novel But with the rise of the novel in the 18th Century, things began to change. In the novel it is necessary to clearly and frequently mark out when direct speech begins and ends. Q-marks became solely for and obligatorily for quotation.

  31. Tom Jones, Vol. I p. 264

  32. Tom Jones, Vol. I p. 264

  33. The Monster Account, Ham-handedly Applied ⟦ Jones said “he feared it was too late” ⟧C = There is some context C*, such that in C* Jones said ⟦ he feared it was too late ⟧C*

  34. The “Past is Past” Objection Yes, no theory of the semantics of present-day Q-Marks has to cover these cases. BUT, there’s no reason to think we are special. If a theory of the semantics of present-day Q-Marks is desirable, then so is a theory of the semantics of 18th Century Q-Marks. AND if a satisfying theory could be had of both, that would be preferable, given their historical relatedness.

  35. More about the Phenomenon 1. Q-Marks always appear around direct forms (e.g. ‘I’ used to refer to the reported speaker). 2. Q-Marks sometimes appear around indirect forms.

  36. More about the Phenomenon 3. Quoted and unquoted indirect forms appear right next to one another, so it appears that the quotation marks are doing something.

  37. More about the Phenomenon 4. Mixed quotation is available and used, so nothing prevents authors from removing indirect forms from within Q-Marks

  38. More about the Phenomenon 5. Devices of unquotation (brackets) are available, so nothing prevents authors from unquoting indirect forms inside Q-Marks.

  39. More about the Phenomenon 6. The non-context-sensitive words inside quote marks seem to belong to the reported speaker.

  40. More about the Phenomenon 7. Often, the indirect forms inside Q-Marks are required by the grammar.

  41. 5. The Punctuation Theory of Quotation

  42. PTQ from Johnson 2011 • Q-Marks in reported speech are punctuation marks. • They don’t articulate any part of the language, and as such they have no semantic value and affect no semantic values. • There are rules for using them, however, just as there are rules for using commas. • In this case, the rule is to put them around and only around the exact words the reported speaker used.

  43. The Mechanics Imagine for the moment that we live in a society where everyone obeys the following rule: For all x, x wears a pink and white polka-dotted hat when and only when it’s x’s birthday.

  44. 1. For all x, x wears a pink and white polka-dotted hat when and only when it’s x’s birthday. [Common knowledge] 2. Therefore, Remzwears a pink and white polka-dotted hat when and only when it’s Remz’ birthday. [1, universal elimination] 3. Remzis wearing a pink and white polka-dotted hat. [Observation] 4. Therefore, it’s Remz’ birthday. [2, 3, biconditional elimination]

  45. 1. For all writers W, reported speakers S, and reported speech of that speaker R, W puts R in quotes when and only when W believes S used the exact words R [Common knowledge] 2. Therefore, Kepner puts the reported speech of Jeter “I don’t know” in quotes when and only when Kepner believes Jeter used the exact words “I don’t know.” [1, universal elimination] 3. Kepner put the reported speech of Jeter in quotes. [Observation] 4. Therefore, Kepner believes Jeter said the exact words “I don’t know.” [2, 3, biconditional elimination]

  46. Virtues of the Approach Words in quotes are still used and not mentioned, contra Kaplan. Nevertheless, PTQ explains how we can infer what words the reported speaker used from a quotation, something the monster approach, we noted, cannot do.

  47. Horse PTQ • For the most part, nothing changes from Rabbit PTQ. • Quotation marks are still punctuation marks. • The rule is still to put them around and only around the exact words the reported speaker used… EXCEPT! • There is a conventional list of exceptions to verbatim reports that are still allowed to go inside quotation marks.