use oral english to convey a complex exchange of ideas n.
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  2. Use oral English to convey a complex exchange of ideas This Unit comprises five Elements: • Discuss problem solving strategies • Respond to hypothetical questions • Discuss abstract concepts • Express opinions • Discuss preferred learning styles

  3. Assessment Assessment for this Unit may include • Oral questions • Written questions • Work projects • Workplace observation of practical skills • Practical exercises • Formal report from employer/supervisor

  4. Discuss problem solving strategies Performance Criteria for this Element are: • 1.1 Define a complex exchange of ideas • 1.2 Identify and agree on desired outcomes • 1.3 Identify problems or barriers to achieving desired outcomes • 1.4 Identify causes of problems • 1.5 Suggest solutions to overcome problems or barriers • 1.6 Evaluate and rank solutions against set criteria

  5. Defining complex ideas Employees in an international setting must: • Be able to understand basic instructions and requests in English • Be able to follow and participate in complex exchanges of ideas

  6. Defining complex ideas A clear understanding is key when interacting with customers. If you do not fully understand, you can ask for clarification or repetition. People often find it difficult to ask for repetition or clarification. However, asking for repetition or clarification will help you: • Limit mistakes • Improve efficiency at work 6

  7. Defining complex ideas If you can’t hear someone well, it is essential that you ask them to repeat themselves. Here are some ways to ask for repetition: • Can you repeat that, please? • Would you mind saying that again? • Sorry, I missed that 7

  8. Defining complex ideas If you didn’t fully comprehend instructions or requests, it is essential that you ask for clarification. Here are some ways to ask for clarification: • You would like me to…? • Can I make sure I understood correctly? • So, I should…? 8

  9. Defining complex ideas Question Activity Arrange yourselves in a circle with all the other trainees. I will start the game by giving one person some instructions. That person can only respond with a question asking for repetition or clarification. Then, that person gives instructions to the trainee on his/her right, who responds with another question. The goal of the game is to go around the circle only responding with questions. 9

  10. Defining complex ideas Keywords Keywords are the words that are most important to a conversation. They can indicate the purpose of the interaction and the customer’s reasoning behind their ideas. Keywords are an essential part of any language. A clear understanding of keywords can help you successfully participate in a conversation. 10

  11. Identify and agree on desired outcomes In order to find a solution to a problem, you must work with your customers to identify and agree on desired outcomes of the situation. 11

  12. Identify and agree on desired outcomes Clear communication is paramount when interacting with guests, but it is especially important when dealing with problems. Use the tips below to deal with problematic situations. Here are the steps you should follow: • Remain calm • Provide an explanation for the problem • Express your ideas clearly • Ask the customer if the outcome is suitable • Think of alternate solutions • Confirm that an agreeable outcome has been found 12

  13. Identify and agree on desired outcomes To give polite explanations use the short form of be, do, and can. Examples: • She’s not working today • The pool isn’t open now • We don’t have any rooms available • I can’t reserve you a table 13

  14. Identify and agree on desired outcomes Questioning and listening to customers is also the best way to find out what outcomes will satisfy their demands. Examples of questions: • How does that sound? • Would that be OK with you? • Is that satisfactory, sir/madam? • Would that suit your needs? 14

  15. Identify problems and barriers You must anticipate what barriers might prevent you from satisfying the needs of your customers, and figure out how to overcome these obstacles. Foresight Foresight is the ability to predict or plan for the future. In business, foresight is used to analysepresent circumstances in order to predict future problems and courses of action that will allow you to arrive at a desired outcome. 15

  16. Identify problems and barriers Future Simple When predicting possible problems or barriers we use the Future Simple verb tense. The Future Simple has two different forms in English: will and going to. • When you talk about future facts or things you believe to be true, use 'will' • If you are not certain about the future, use 'will' with expressions such as 'probably', 'I think', 'I hope' • If you are making a future prediction based on evidence in the present situation, use 'going to' • At the moment of making a decision, use 'will'. Once you have made the decision, use 'going to' 16

  17. Identify causes of problems When you have a problem in a professional environment, it's important to examine the things that are possible. This will allow you to solve the problem completely the first time, rather than just dealing with the negative effects of it and having the problem continue. Cause and Effect Cause and effect refers to the concept of causality, in which an action or event will produce a certain response to the action in the form of another event. Analysing the cause of a problem will help to produce more desired effects in the future. 17

  18. Identify causes of problems Adverbs When discussing cause and effect relationships, we often use adverbs. An adverb can be a single word such as slowly, here or tomorrow, or a phrase such as the day before yesterday or to catch the lift. Adverbs can also be clauses, containing a subject and a full verb. Examples: • I saw the man yesterday • I saw the man on Friday • I saw the man before I left work 18

  19. Suggest solutions After you have identified a problem, considered desirable outcomes and investigated the cause of the problem, it is appropriate to suggest solutions to overcome the problem. Modal Verbs To politely offer suggestions, we often use the modal verbs can, could, should and would. 19

  20. Suggest solutions The Final ‘S’ Final consonants can be very difficult in English, especially the final “S” sound. Go over the rules of pronunciation below and place the words into the correct column. • /s/ after voiceless sounds { p, f , th, t , k , h } except for [s, sh, ch] which are voiceless but they belong to another category called 'hissing sounds' • /iz/ after the hissing sounds [s , z, sh, ch, d] • /z/ after all sounds except the above 20

  21. Evaluate solutions Evaluating your solutions is an integral part of conducting good business. It is not enough to find solutions to problems and then forget about the consequences. Establishing set criteria to measure the success of your solutions is fundamental in a professional workplace. Establishing criteria Criterion should define a minimal set of requirements that must be met in order for a solution to be considered acceptable.  They should be used as guidelines for good business practices and must be met in order to say that a solution is complete, correct and worth implementing. 21

  22. Respond to hypothetical questions Performance Criteria for this Element are: • 2.1 Suggest possible course of action in response to unforeseen events • 2.2 Agree or disagree with suggestions • 2.3 Discuss potential benefits of change • 2.4 Predict potential disadvantages of change • 2.5 Outline contingency plans 22

  23. Unforeseen events There is no possible way to predict everything that will happen at your workplace. However, it is important that you and your colleagues are prepared to deal with unforeseen events. 23

  24. Unforeseen events Imperatives In order to deal with unforeseen situations quickly and efficiently, use the Imperative to work with staff. The Imperative expresses commands or requests in a direct way. Examples : • Take the chairs inside • Open the door • Come here! 24

  25. Agreeing or disagreeing with suggestions Ways to agree • That’s a fantastic idea • That sounds great • Yes, I agree with that Ways to disagree • We could try that, but maybe we should ... • I have to disagree. I think that... • Thank you for your suggestion. I think... 25

  26. Agreeing or disagreeing with suggestions Tone Your tone of speech is very important when responding to suggestions. You may use all the correct language, but if you use an incorrect tone, you may give your audience the wrong impression. In English, tone can be used to express a wide variety of emotions. Make sure you express the emotion you mean to. 26

  27. Benefits of change Changes in the workplace are inevitable. Business practices always have room for improvement, and social and technological developments continually change the way we work. To remain successful as a business you must regularly alter your way of operating, your services and your interactions with your customers. 27

  28. Benefits of change Tips for dealing with changes: • Get people excited about the future • Present a clear plan for them to follow • Make them feel connected to the business • Show them how the changes will contribute to their long-term development • Tell them that things will be different without speaking negatively about the past • Don’t use threats or promises • Give people plenty of time to adjust to the changes • Provide opportunities for them to voice their opinions/questions 28

  29. Benefits of change Future Perfect When talking about potential benefits or the future effects of changes, English-speakers often use the Future Perfect verb tense. The future perfect is used to describe an event that is expected or planned to happen before another event in the future. We use this tense to express possible effects of changes by a certain time. How to form the Future Perfect Subject + will + have + past participle 29

  30. Disadvantages of change Companies spend millions of dollars every year trying to improve their bottom line by making drastic changes to existing business practices. But when companies try to predict the future, they often fail. Change is extremely difficult to implement, especially if it affects employees negatively. 30

  31. Disadvantages of change Word Stress Correct word stress is an essential part of good English pronunciation. Incorrect word stress can make the word very difficult to hear and understand. Examples: jungle about relaxing expedition cancellation 31

  32. Contingency plans What if your electricity goes out for the day? What if the kitchen runs out of rice? Situations like this can cause chaos if you haven't prepared for them adequately. Contingency planning is a key part of this preparation. It is not just about natural disasters. It is also about preparing for events such as the loss of information, employees, clients, and vendors. 32

  33. Contingency plans Conditionals Conditional sentences discuss possible implications or hypothetical situations and their consequences. There are several types of conditional sentences in English, but for these purposes the first and second conditionals are most useful. First Conditional If + present simple + will + main verb Second Conditional If + past simple + would + main verb 33

  34. Discuss abstract concepts Performance Criteria for this Element are: • 3.1 Discuss issues related to cross cultural understanding • 3.2 Demonstrate understanding of concepts such as beliefs, values and attitudes • 3.3 Discuss the impact of culture on guests’ expectations and perceptions 34

  35. Cross-cultural understanding Accepting and understanding the cultural differences between yourself and your guests is important. First Impressions Working in the tourist industry, it should be understood that the first impression you are giving to your customers is not just of you personally, but represents your establishment, your staff, and even your country. 35

  36. Cross-cultural understanding Greetings • Handshake • Bow • Namaste • Smile 36

  37. Cross-cultural understanding English Accents English speakers could possibly come from a variety of different countries. Although every individual will have his or her own style and accent speaking English, some generalisations can be made about the English from specific countries. 37

  38. Beliefs, values and attitudes Beliefs, values and attitudes are an essential part of our lives and thinking. These things help us make important life decisions, and affect the way we do out job, have relationships, and see the world. They are powerful things to study and to understand. However, belief, values and attitudes are not the same thing, although they serve to shape each other. 38

  39. The impact of culture Travel is becoming more and more accessible. Not so long ago only the wealthy could afford to travel, or middle-class families who had saved for years could only manage a short holiday. Now, with airline prices falling drastically, along with monthly specials and deals, travel has become more popular and available to the masses. 39

  40. The impact of culture Reviews Reviews are an important part of customer satisfaction. Many hotels and restaurants have a “review card”, in which consumers can instantly record their thoughts on the service, food, staff and atmosphere. 40

  41. Express opinions Performance Criteria for this Element are: • 4.1 Express and support opinions • 4.2 Agree and disagree • 4.3 Discuss alternative opinions 41

  42. Express and support opinions Having an opinion is one thing, but entirely another to be able to express and support opinions strongly and correctly within the English language. Personal point of view A personal point of view is your very own opinion. Whatever your opinion may be, it is a statement that expresses your personal thinking. 42

  43. Express and support opinions Ways to express personal point of view: • In my experience… • As far as I'm concerned… • Speaking for myself… • In my opinion… • Personally, I think… 43

  44. Express and support opinions General Point of View Stating a general point of view is to express an opinion generally thought by a group of people to which you do or don’t belong. Examples: • It is thought that... • Some people say that... • It is considered that... 44

  45. Agree and disagree Knowing how to agree and disagree in the English language is a valuable skill. In the professional realm, pleasing your guests by understanding their request and expectations via agreement or disagreement is essential. Examples of agreement: • Of course • I couldn’t agree more Examples of disagreement: • On the contrary... • I’m afraid I have to disagree 45

  46. Alternative opinions Alternative opinions include giving advice, making commands, asking and granting opinions and expressing obligations. In the tourism industry, giving advice and making recommendations are one of the most important services you can perform. Therefore, it is necessary to learn how to do this correctly and precisely. 46

  47. Alternative opinions Modal Verbs Modal verbs are concerned with our relationship with someone else. We can express levels of politeness both by the forms we choose and the way we say things. Use modal verbs to express: • advice • ability • permission • possibility • prohibition • necessity • obligation 47

  48. Discuss preferred learning styles Performance Criteria for this Element are: • 5.1 Discuss various preferred learning styles • 5.2 Discuss the implications of knowing preferred learning styles for yourself • 5.3 Discuss the implications of knowing the preferred learning styles of your co-workers and guests for your business 48

  49. Preferred learning styles 49

  50. Personal learning style When you begin to understand your preferred learning styles, then you can maximiseyour potential as a student. You can then tailor the material to exactly how you need to learn. You will soon find that, not only your memorization of the material, but your application of the material to everyday life will begin to grow. 50