ASL III Deaf Culture & History Notes
American Sign Language • ASL is not. . . • Bad English, broken English, short English, or any kind of English, Morse Code, fingerspelling, or pantomime. • ASL evolved from. . . • A blend of Old French Sign Language& Martha’s Vineyard S.L. • How is ASL changing and evolving today? • Iconic (pictorial or mime-like) signs gradually become more abstract, more arbitrary. New signs gradually introduced; old signs altered or dropped.
Dr. cogswell & gallaudet • Not so long ago, how was signing treated? • Inferior to English, not socially acceptable. • When Dr. Cogswell found out Alice was deaf, what choices did he have? • 1. Send his child overseas to the famous Braidwood Academy in Edinburgh, Scotland • 2. Hire a private tutor to teach speaking, reading, & writing. • What was Thomas Gallaudet’s goal? • Establish a school for the deaf in Hartford, Conn.
DEAF EDUCATION in EUROPE • Who were the two deaf men Gallaudet saw at a public lecture in London, what did they do? • Jean Massieu & Laurent Clerc, wrote their answers in French on a large slateboard. • Since Gallaudet couldn’t learn ASL fast enough, what did he do? • Asked Laurent Clerc to accompany him to the states to help set up the new school.
DEAF EDUCATION IN AMERICA • How was sign language used in the “American Asylum for the Instruction of Deaf and Dumb Persons? • Clerc used FSL, fingerspelling, “methodical signs” which were adapted by the students’ preferences and ASL became more of a distinct language. • Who founded Gallaudet University? • Thomas’ son, Edward Miner Gallaudet • What happened to the best students from the deaf school? • They became teachers of the deaf.
Golden Age • When was the “Golden Age” of Deaf Culture? • Early 1800’s • What happened during the “Golden Age”? • Period of highly-educated, skilled Deaf people who were bilingual-fluent in Sign & articulate in written English. • Time without employment discrimination of Deaf people especially in teaching. • When a real Deaf community existed w/ clubs, churches, organizations, sports, & a Deaf press.
GeNETICS & FINGERSPELLING • _______% of Deaf parents have Deaf kids. • 10% True or False? • When fingerspelling, speed is more important than clarity. • False • If you don’t know a sign, the first thing you should do is fingerspell. • False, you should try gesturing. • Regional signs are signs that are commonly used in certain geographical locations. • True
PSE & SEE • What is Pigeon Signed English (PSE)? • An impromptu blend of ASL signs in English word order. • Current term is Conceptually Accurate Signed English (CASE). True or False? • PSE is its own unique language. • False • When is PSE most commonly used? • When ASL-Deaf people communicate w/ hearing who are not fluent in ASL but know some signs & fingerspelling. • What does SEE stand for? • Signing Exact English
Total communication • Which educator first used the term “total communication”? • Roy Holcomb • A philosophy incorporating the appropriate aural, manual, &oral modes of communication in order to ensure effective communication with and among hearing impaired persons is called A. Signed English B. PSE C. Total Communication D. Manually Coded English (MCE)
Foreign & Reading? • Explain why ASL is not considered a foreign language by some colleges and universities. • Misunderstandings about what ASL is, they say “it’s not a language” & “it’s not foreign”. True or False? • Deaf people hate to read because they have difficulty thinking abstractly. • False
Lipreading • ___% of spoken sounds are visible on the lips. • 30% • Deaf people can best lip-read whom? • Members of their household or close friends. • Only some Deaf have speech training. • True • Deaf don’t know their voices are “strange”. • False • It is appropriate to ask a Deaf person to voice. • False
Labels • Why don’t Deaf like being called mute? • Conveys a negative attitude, refers to someone who can’t talk or has malfunctioning or missing vocal cords. Most deaf people are physically and psychologically normal. • What group first opposed the “mute” label? • Oralists
Views of deafness • What are the 2 ways to view Deaf people? • 1. Medical- people w/ physical disability (communication disorder or hearing disease) • 2. Cultural- people w/ ethnic difference, possessing a distinct language & culture • Which view is correct? • The cultural view is sensible & humane. True or False? • Deaf genes are transmitted by hearing people. • True
Hearing Aids • Do hearing aids help all Deaf people? • No • What does a hearing aid do? • Tiny amplifier that makes sounds louder. • True or False? Hearing aids can focus in on one sound and ignore another. • False • Most Deaf people who don’t wear hearing aids choose not to because . . . • They feel uncomfortable & don’t like to wear them.
Cochlear implants • It’s okay if late-deafened adults get a cochlear implant because. . . • They are excellent candidates, few have bad results. • Why are children given cochlear implants when they are so young? • More options, better, social, educational, & job opportunities.
DEAF COMMUNITY • Name two kinds of hearing people that are in the Deaf community. • 1. Hearing parents/children of Deaf • 2. Interpreters/Teachers of Deaf • How is Deaf Culture passed on? • Deaf parents, schools, & clubs • What things do most Deaf people have in common that brings them together? • They prefer to communicate & mingle w/ their own kind, common language (ASL) & “Deaf” attitude.
DEAF COMMUNITY True or False? • All deaf people are in the Deaf community. • False • Late-Deafened Adults are easily accepted in the Deaf Community. • False • It is easier for a 50 year old to become Deaf than an 18 year old. • False
LIFE CHANGES • If you become Deaf, list 5 things that would change in your life and how. • 1. Talking on telephone, can’t hear whispers. • 2. Conversations w/ family & children at dinners more difficult. • 3. Communicating on the job often misunderstood; lose jobs. • 4. Feeling isolated & depressed due to loss of friends & relationships. • 5. Difficulty fitting in a social group; finding your identity.
CAUSES & AG BELL • What does “congenitally” mean? • Acquired disorder at birth either genetically or through injury/disease. • How did I. King Jordan become deaf? • Motorcycle accident True or False? • Alexander G. Bell wanted to stop signing in Deaf Schools. • True • A. G. Bell respected Deaf teachers. • False
Deaf peddlers • Does the Deaf Community support Deaf peddlers? • No • What stereotype do Deaf peddlers perpetuate? • I am Deaf-mute, uneducated, unskilled, unemployable, & a pitiful victim of society. • Name one reason Deaf don’t want hearing to learn sign. • They use ASL to take over agencies serving Deaf people & increase their power in the Deaf community.
Learning sign & oppression • Name one reason Deaf do want hearing to learn sign. • They can communicate better with the Deaf community. • Linguistically, how were Deaf oppressed? • Teachers taught deafness was bad, signing not socially acceptable, it had to be hidden, it was shameful & dirty. • In the work place, how are Deaf oppressed? • Jobs taken away; conned into signing papers they didn’t understand to buy furniture/cars only to be repossessed later.
interpreting • When did interpreting become a profession? • mid-1960’s • What is RID and WHY is it important? • Registry of Interpreters for the Deaf; They recognize interpreting as a profession and train & certify interpreters. • According to the Americans with Disabilities Act (ADA) who must pay for the interpreter? • The business or government agency
interpreting • Name two rules interpreters must follow. • 1. Can’t explain deaf person’s behavior • 2.Can’t play God; control the deaf client • T / F If you see a deaf person you should offer to help or interpret. • False • Deaf people will most likely ask you these two questions. • 1. Where did you learn sign? • 2.Who was your Sign teacher?
HearING Values & Pet peeves • Name one reason Deaf people want to be hearing. • Disgusted w/ dealing w/ restrictions & discrimination from hearing world. • Name one reason Deaf people don’t want to be hearing. • Don’t miss what they never had, used to not hearing sound, music, & spoken conversation. • Name two things that irritate Deaf people. • 1. When asking what was said in a story or joke, being waved on “I’ll tell you later” or “It’s not important”. • 2. When hearing people are told one is Deaf, they say, “Oh, I am so sorry” & start to speak louder & very slow; which is harder to understand.