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  2. Why do I have to point twice? • Pointing back to yourself or to the person you’re talking about shows completion of a train of thought. • This allows someone to start signing without interrupting you. • Using deixis (index finger) at the end of a sentence is called a closing signal. • Closing signals are important when asking questions using the Question-Maker or the WH-Face

  3. Closing Signals… • Use a closing signal when: • Making a statement or comment about yourself or someone else. • Asking a question • Examples: • YOU NAME WHAT YOU? • ME NAME KELLY ME

  4. Remember… • ASL sentences lacking closing signals are incomplete • There is no such thing as a one-word answer or reply in ASL. • When responding to a question or statement, one-word replies are incomplete.

  5. Question Maker • Raising your eyebrows forms the Question-Maker, an expression that shows you are asking a question. • Keep your eyebrows raised until you’ve completed signing the question. • Examples: • I’m going to the bathroom • Am I going to the bathroom

  6. Little Words (is, to, are) • The grammar and syntax (the order in which words are put together) of ASL is different from English. • ASL does not need “little” words because these words are already included in the sign. • Example: • THANK YOU • The verb and object are combined in the sign.

  7. Time Signs • Signs that show when something happens come first in a sentence. • Days of the week, year, last-year, etc.

  8. WH-Signs • WHO, WHAT, WHERE, WHEN, WHY because, WHICH • These signs go at the end of a sentence! • WHO may occur at the beginning of a sentence only if it also occurs at the end.

  9. Grammatical Structures • ASL uses one of two different grammatical structures depending on what is being signed. • Topic-Comment • Subject-Verb-Object (SVO)

  10. Sentence Structure • In ASL you can choose to assemble words in your sentence in different orders, depending on the content of your conversation.

  11. Putting Nouns and Verbs Together • ASL allows you to put the subject before or after the verb when dealing with simple sentences; it doesn’t matter which word comes first. • Example: • HE SELLS • ME EAT

  12. Sentences with Direct Objects • Direct object: a word that goes after the verb and answers the question What? Or Whom? • In ASL the direct object can go before the subject or after the verb. • Example: • FOOD HE SELLS • CAR SHE DRIVES

  13. Signing Indirect Objects • Indirect objects: words that come between the verb and direct object; they indicate who or what receives the direct object. • Example: • GIRL DOG BONE THROW • ME TEACHER APPLES-me GIVE

  14. Topic-Comment In topic comment languages the signer presents information then makes the information either a statement or a question by adding a comment. • English does not use topic-comment structure often so becoming used to ASL Grammar can be a challenge.

  15. Topic-Comment • Keep in mind that while using ASL signs in English word order may be easy to do, it is no different than speaking Spanish but following English Word order- You wont make sense in either language. • Example: What you name? • Topic: you • Comment: name • YOU NAME WHAT YOU?

  16. Topic Time Place Description Comment Actor Action Sentence Structure Time + Topic + Comment

  17. Topic Comment Practice • John’s mom showed up at his apartment this morning and told him she had a surprise for him. • Sissy had to hurry to get to the university, so this morning she didn’t eat. • Jose has a really cool apartment. It is over there by the university. • See the woman over there, the tall, thin one with the blonde hair in the pink dress?

  18. Topic Comment Practice cont… • Marci’s not feeling good today. She’s hot and then cold. • I don’t know what I smell but something stinks. • Mr. Smith teaches at the High School. Wow! Was he mad today! • Today I didn’t have class so I spent all day reading a good book.

  19. Subject-Verb-Object • Use when WH-signs are not needed • More familiar to English speakers. • Why often acts as a bridge or connector between two separate SVO phrases. • When using WHY raise your eyebrows. • Example: _________neg ___^ • ME GO SCHOOL WHY? ME SICK.

  20. AND/OR • Does he want a blue or black pen? • HE WANT PEN BLUE BACK WHICH? HE • I need this one and that one. • ME NEED IX-this IX-that ME.

  21. True-Biz • Means literally

  22. ACCEPT-HARD • Too bad just accept it for what it is.

  23. FOR-FOR • Why? • What for.

  24. SEE-SEE • Oh I see! • Oh I understand.

  25. DO-DO • What are you doing? • What did you do? • What do you do?

  26. Numbers 1-5 • Numbers 1-5 always face you except when signing addresses and telephone numbers.

  27. INSIDE • The sign inside is a literal sign that means to be inside of. • Avoid using it when signing IN December or IN the future.

  28. Compound Signs • Many words in ASL are compound signs. • Two separate signs that are combined to make an additional meaning. • Example: parents, sunny, grandparents

  29. Listing & Ordering • Making a visual list of information such as names or ages is called listing. • The non-dominant hand forms a list with each new bit of information signed by the dominant hand. • Example: • Marc is the first, I’m the 2nd, and Lila is the 3rd child.

  30. Fixing Mistakes • Mistakes are guaranteed to happen, whether you are fluent in a language or not. • The most common ways to fix a mistake are: • Oops • Slip-mind • Um, uh • Wave-no

  31. Pronouns and Number • Use the ASL pronoun that shows the particular number of people being talked about whenever possible. • When the exact number is unknown use the general pronouns we, us, or they.

  32. Pronouns • General Pronoun: We, Us (up to 8) • You and I, Us three, the four of us. • General Pronoun: you (plural) • You two, you three, the four of you • General Pronoun: they, them, those • These two, those three, the four of them.

  33. Pronoun Drill • Those four • You and me • You three • You and her • These five • You, me, and him • She and I • Two of them • Us two