The Surrealist Movement Heubeck, Rob and AP European Class-John Carroll School. Surrealism (Power Point Presentation), (2004), Europe Between the Wars [core] Secondary-Class Material
Do you know anything? • What is Surrealism? • Where did this movement originate? • Who founded the Surrealist movement? • What people influenced the Surrealism?
Surrealism “pure psychic automatism, by which an attempt is made to express, either verbally, in writing or in any other manner, the true functioning of thought. The dictation of thought, in the absence of all control by reason, excluding any aesthetic or moral preoccupation.” ~Andre Breton~
Surrealism: the Beginning • Founded by Andre Breton • Breton turned from Dadaism to Surrealism • Influenced by psychological theories such as those of Freud and Jung • Movement was also founded by Paul Eluard, Luis Bunuel, and Salvador Dali • Movement started in 1924 in Europe
The Founder • Andre Breton • 1896-1966 • Born in Tinchebray • Studied medicine and later psychiatry • French poet, essayist, and critic • Used Freudian methods to psychoanalyze his patients • First joined the Dadaist group, but left it after various quarrels • Began the Surrealist Movement • Wrote three manifestos on Surrealism – one in 1924, one in 1930, and one in 1934
Influences • Ideas of Carl Jung and Sigmund Freud, that there was a unconscious that communicated to the conscious mind • Freud and Jung interpreted the subconscious • Their work kindled an interest in the subconscious mind in artists • Surrealist artists used their works to represent what the unconscious mind was trying to say • The artists wanted their works to connect the physical and mental worlds
Surrealism was a Reaction • Reaction to other art movements and the way they interpreted images • Impressionism • Cubism • Expressionism • Reaction against the reason and logic that had led Europe in to World War I • Reaction against post World War I Europe
1924 – Surrealist Movement begins 1924 – Breton writes the first Surrealist Manifesto 1925 – First issue of the Surrealist newspaper, La Révolution Surréaliste, is published 1925 – Ernst’s first Surrealist paintings were exhibited in Paris 1926 – Magritte painted his first Surrealist work “Le Jockey Perdu” 1929 – Dali made first Surrealist film Un Chien Andalou 1929 – Breton writes the second Surrealist Manifesto 1938 – International Exhibition of Surrealism is held in Paris 1941 – Surrealist Movement ends A Really Brief Timeline
Realistic Irrational Describing dreamlike fantasies Artist such as Magritte, Dali, and Pellan Abstract Tried to expressed workings of the unconscious mind Modeled on “free association” a psychotherapeutic procedure Artists such as Miro, Ernst, and Masson Surrealist Style
Artist: Magritte • Born 1898 in Belgium • Served in the military • Began as a graphic artist • 1926 painted his first Surrealist work “Le Jockey Perdu” • Realistic Surrealist painter • 1943 tries out a new style called “Solar” style and he used this with a Surrealist style • Died 1967
Artist: Dali • Born 1904 in Figures, Spain • Began painting at age 10 • Attended Municipal Drawing School Explored Cubism, Neo-Classicism, and Realism in his paintings • 1929 made first Surrealist film Un Chien Andalou • Realistic Surrealist painter • Prints were in Surrealist books • Even Surrealists believed that his works were controversial • 1934 left the Surrealist group • Died 1989
Artist: Masson • Born 1896 • Early French Surrealist painter • Abstract Surrealist painter • Joined Surrealist Movement in the early 1920s • Close friend of Andre Breton • Left in the early 1930s • After he left, his paintings focused on the human condition • Died 1987
Artist: Ernst • Born 1891 in Germany • Abstract Surrealist painter • Member of the Dada movement • One of the founders of Surrealism • Self-taught artist • Pioneered a method of painting called frottage • 1925 his first Surrealist paintings were exhibited in Paris • Died 1976
Surrealism: Women • Began as muses to Surrealist painters, instead of being painters themselves • Became artists • Used water and rebirth imagery in much of their paintings • Tended to have erotic images in their paintings • Prominent female Surrealists – Leonor Fini, Marie Cerminova, and Leonora Carrington
Surrealism: Literature • Wrote using automatism – writing whatever came into their minds at that moment • Thought automatism would allow the subconscious to be expressed • Example of this style • Paul Eluard • “Elephants are contagious.” • Used symbols taken from Freud’s psychology • Writers – Louis Aragon, Rene Crevel, and Philippe Soupault
Surrealism and Music • French Surrealists did not like music because of Andre Breton’s disdain for Schopenhauer • Not until 1946 that Surrealism included music • Breton accepted that music could display the ideas of Surrealism • Music possessed the creative forces necessary for Surrealism
Surrealism in France • Surrealist Movement began in France • Forefathers of Surrealism are said to be French poets • Many prominent Surrealist painters were French including the founder of Surrealism Andre Breton • Surrealist literature was confined almost entirely to France
Surrealism out of Europe • Spread to and flourished in America before and during World War II • Because Andre Breton moved to New York • After World War II, Surrealism changed into Abstract Expressionism in America • There are still many artists in America who use the Surrealist style of painting
Surrealism: The End • Ended shortly after World War II • Ignored by the new Modernist movement • Could not become a major cultural force in Europe or the United States • Movement officially ended in 1941 • There are still many artists who use this art form today
In Conclusion "Elephants are contagious."
Works Cited • Ades, Dawn. “Introduction.” Andre Masson Home Page. 27 May 2003 http://www.connectotel.com/masson/. • “Andre Breton.” Books and Writers. 22 May 2003 http://www.kirjasto.sci.fi/abreton.htm. • “Artists by Movement: Surrealism.” Artcyclopedia. 22 May 2003 http://www.artcyclopedia.com/history/surrealism.html. • Botstein, Leon. “Surrealsim and Music?” American Symphony Orchestra. 27 May 2003 http://www.americansymphony.org/dialogues_extensions/92_93season/2nd_concert/leon.cfm. • “Dada & Surrealism.” Salisbury University. 27 May 2003 http://www.salisbury.edu/schools/fulton/Theatre/Dada/dada%20timeline.htm. • “Dada and Surrealism.” Women Artists. 28 May 2003 http://www.hlla.com/reference/surreal.html. • “Dada and Surrealism: Percussion Sounds.” Dada and Surrealist Cinema. 25 May 2003 http://www.duke.edu/web/lit132/music.html. • Delahunt, Michael. “Surrealism.” Artlex Art Dictionary. 23 May 2003 http://www.artlex.com/ArtLex/s/surrealism.html. • “Magritte – Biography.” Expo-Shop.com. 23 May 2003 http://www.magritte.com/2.cfm. • “Max Ernst.” Artist’s Rights Society. 27 May 2003 http://www.mcs.csuhayward.edu/~malek/Ernst.html. • “New York Commentary.” Studio International. 1968. 29 May 2003 http://www.studio- international.com.uk/archive/new_york_1968_175_901.htm. • Pedigree & Provenance. Biddington’s. 29 May 2003 http://www.biddingtons.com/content/pedigreesurreal.html. • “Salvador Dali.” Dali.com. 27 May 2003 http://www.dali.com/bio/. • Sanchez, Monica. “History of Surrealism.” 27 May 2003 http://www.bway.net/~monique/history.htm. • Sanchez, Monica. “Surrealism: The Art of Self Discovery.” 23 May 2003 http://www.bway.net/~monique/surreal.htm. • “Surrealism.” Encylopedia.com. Sixth Edition. 2003. Columbia Encyclopedia. 28 May 2003 http://www.encyclopedia.com/html/s1/surreali.asp. • “Surrealism.” Microsoft Corporation. 28 May 2003 http://www.connect.net/ron/surreal.html. • “The Unconscious and the Sublime Surrealism and Abstract Expressionism.” The Newark Museum. 28 May 2003 http://www.newarkmuseum.org/americanart/html/tour/galleries/surrealism.htm.