Fort Sumter (April 12–14, 1861)
South Carolina secedes….calls on the Union to give up their forts in S.C.’s territory
Four more states Secede 8.Virginia (April 17; referendum May 23, 1861)9. Arkansas (May 6)10. Tennessee (May 7; referendum June 8)11. North Carolina 75,000 Union troops are asked to join by Lincoln
Stop and Think: The North Loses Fort Sumter, as a result, They want to take Richmond
Lee • Graduate from West Point • Colonel in Mexican War • Led West Point • Put down John Brown (U.S.A.)
Civilwar.org • “Because of his reputation as one of the finest officers in the United States Army, Abraham Lincoln offered Lee the command of the Federal forces in April 1861. Lee declined and tendered his resignation from the army when the state of Virginia seceded on April 17, arguing that he could not fight against his own people. Instead, he accepted a general’s commission in the newly formed Confederate Army.”
Think about it…. • Was it a mistake for Lee to join the Confederate States? Would you turn against Indiana if it meant fighting for your country?
1st Battle of Bull Run
25 Miles From D.C.
"You are green, it is true, but they are green also; you are all green alike." Irwin McDowell -Lincoln July 21, 1861
Stonewall Jackson Confederate Soldier under Robert E. Lee Brigadier general Held his ground
One of the casualties of the artillery fire was Judith Carter Henry, an 85-year-old widow and invalid, who was unable to leave her bedroom in the Henry House. As Ricketts began receiving rifle fire, he concluded that it was coming from the Henry House and turned his guns on the building. A shell that crashed through the bedroom wall tore off one of the widow's feet and inflicted multiple injuries, from which she died later that day
This was the first major land battle of the armies in Virginia. On July 16, 1861, the untried Union army under Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell marched from Washington against the Confederate army, which was drawn up behind Bull Run beyond Centreville. On the 21st, McDowell crossed at Sudley Ford and attacked the Confederate left flank on Matthews Hill. Fighting raged throughout the day as Confederate forces were driven back to Henry Hill. Late in the afternoon, Confederate reinforcements extended and broke the Union right flank. The Federal retreat rapidly deteriorated into a rout. Thomas J. Jackson earned the nom de guerre “Stonewall.” By July 22, the shattered Union army reached the safety of Washington.
Battle of Shiloh April 6 - 7, 1862 Forces Engaged= 110,053 Hornet’s Nest Union- 65,085 Confederate- 44,968 Grant’s big victory in the West Casualties- 23,746
The Second Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) proved to be the deciding battle in the Civil War campaign waged between Union and Confederate armies in northern Virginia in 1862. As a large Union force commanded by John Pope waited for George McClellan's Army of the Potomac in anticipation of a combined offensive, Confederate General Robert E. Lee decided to strike first.
Lee sent half of his Army of Northern Virginia to hit the Federal supply base at Manassas. Led by Stonewall Jackson, hero of the First Battle of Bull Run (Manassas) 13 months earlier, the rebels seized supplies and burned the depot, then established hidden positions in the woods. On August 29, Pope's Federals clashed with Jackson's men, who held their ground with heavy losses on both sides.
The following day, after the rest of Lee's army arrived, 28,000 rebels led by James Longstreet launched a counterattack, forcing Pope to withdraw his battered army toward Washington that night.
Battle of Antietam Bloodiest Single Day in America’s History
The 27th Indiana Volunteers On the morning on September 13, 1862, Corporal Barton Mitchell of the 27th Indiana discovered Robert E. Lee’s Special Order 191 wrapped with three cigars in a field on the Best Farm, not far from Frederick, Maryland. This discovery of Lee’s Maryland Campaign plans would energize the Army of Potomac's pursuit of Lee’s divided forces in Maryland. At the Battle of Antietam, the 27th Indiana, part of the Union XII Corps, suffered tremendous casualties as it advanced through the Miller Cornfield. By the end of the Maryland Campaign the 27th Indiana had lost almost 50% of its soldiers.
"Once let the black man get upon his person the brass letter, U.S., let him get an eagle on his button, and a musket on his shoulder and bullets in his pocket, there is no power on earth that can deny that he has earned the right to citizenship." Frederick Douglass
In early June 1864, Private Sylvester Ray of the 2d U.S. Colored Cavalry was recommended for trial because he refused to accept pay inferior to that of white soldiers. First Lieutenant Edwin Hughes of the 2d U.S. Colored Cavalry, recorded Private Ray as stating, ". . . none of us will sign again for seven dollars a month. . . ."
When Johnny comes marching home again, Hurrah! Hurrah! We'll give him a hearty welcome then, Hurrah! Hurrah! The men will cheer, the boys will shout, The ladies they will all turn out, And we'll all feel gay When Johnny comes marching home.
The old church bells will peal with joy, Hurrah! Hurrah! To welcome home our darling boy, Hurrah! Hurrah! The village lads and lassies say With roses they will strew the way, And we'll all feel gay When Johnny comes marching home.
Get ready for the Jubilee, Hurrah! Hurrah! We'll give the hero three times three, Hurrah! Hurrah! The laurel wreath is ready now To place upon his loyal brow, And we'll all feel gay When Johnny comes marching home.
Let love and friendship on that day, Hurrah! Hurrah! Their choicest treasures then display, Hurrah! Hurrah! And let each one perform some part To fill with joy the warrior's heart, And we'll all feel gay When Johnny comes marching home.