Chapter 10 Incarceration
Incarceration • Links to The Past • The Goals of Incarceration • Organization for Incarceration • Federal Bureau of Prisons • State Prison Systems • The Design and Classification of Prisons • Today's Designs • The Location of Prisons • Private Prisons • Who is in Prison? • Elderly Prisoners • Prisoners with HIV/AIDS • Mentally ill Prisoners
The Goals of Incarceration Three models of incarceration have predominated since the early 1940s: custodial, rehabilitation, and reintegration. Each is associated with one style of institutional organization. • Custodial model • A model of correctional institutions that emphasizes security, discipline and order • Rehabilitation model • A model of correctional institutions that emphasizes the provision of treatment programs designed to reform the offender. • Reintegration model • A model of correctional institutions that emphasizes maintenance of the offender’s ties to family and the community as a method of reform, in recognition of the fact that the offender will be returning to the community.
“classification” • process by which prisoner is categorized regarding security & treatment needs & is assigned to custody level (i.e., prison), supervision level (within prison), & treatment programs • Ideally, based on psychology, education, vocational, health, other needs • classification determines: • prison site • housing assignment • work assignment • availability of treatment programs • good time available (e.g., Colorado) • today: classification = f (RISK)!
3 models of incarceration • custodial • emphasizes security, discipline, order • dominates maximum security prisons • rehabilitation • emphasizes provision of treatment programs designed to reform the offender • developed in 1950s; out of favor today • reintegration • emphasizes maintenance of the offender’s ties to family & community as a method of reform, recognizing that the offender will be returning to community • linked to community corrections
Prison security levels: a caveat • there are no national design or classification “standards” regarding different levels of security. • a “maximum” security prison in one state may appear much like a “medium” security prison in another. • prison crowding has further blurred the distinction between maximum & medium security prisons, even within a state.
“maximum security” • prison designed, organized, & operated to minimize the possibility of escapes & violence; imposes strict limitations on the movement & freedom of inmates & visitors
“medium security” • prison designed, organized, & operated to prevent escapes & violence, but in which restrictions on inmates & visitors are less rigid than in maximum security facilities
“minimum security” • prison designed, organized, & operated to permit inmates & visitors as muchfreedom as is consistent with the concept of incarceration
the “super-max” • created to house the “worst of the worst”--incorrigible, violent, assaultive, disruptive inmates, & prison gang members-- who require close & constant supervision • house 100,000 men (8 -10% of total in custody) • created by federal government; 38 states • Administrative Maximum Facility (ADX) Florence, Colorado • Pelican Bay State Prison (SHU) • Northern Correctional Institute -- Connecticut
“race” • traditionally, a biologicalconcept used to distinguish humankind into categories related to skin color & other physical features
“ethnicity” • concept used to distinguish people according to their culturalcharacteristics - language, religion, & group traditions • ethnicity can be used to further distinguish not only among white individuals, but among African Americans, as well. • it can also be used to even further subdivide Hispanics.
MYTHS IN CORRECTIONS • The Myth: Supermax prisons house the most hardened inmates who prey on prison staff and other inmates. • The Reality: Although inmates in supermax facilities may, on average, commit more rule infractions, it is important to consider the factors that influence such behaviors. Research shows that a nontrivial number of young inmates purposefully violate prison rules so they can be sent to supermax to escape real or perceived problems in general population. Another sizable group of inmates in supermax are seriously mentally ill and engage in unpredictable and extremely bizarre behavior, which sometimes entails violence.
new prison populations with special problems or needs “new” populations prisoners with HIV/AIDS mentally ill prisoners elderly prisoners prisoners with long terms
Evolution of Private prisons:“own a piece of the rock-pile” today: $1 billion annual operation! • Marion Adjustment Center • 1st privately owned & operated facility for adult felons, 1986 • Kentucky • US Corrections Corp. • Intensive Treatment Unit • Weaversville, Pennsylvania --1st privately operated secure correctional facility, 1975 • 20-bed, high security • dormitory-style • training school • juvenile delinquents • RCA Corporation • non-profit organizations • 1960s • halfway houses • group homes • juvenile care • work release
private prisonsthe key players the business of private prisons: • launched in 1980s, spurred by massive state prison boom • $1 billion yearly operation in U.S. • 158 private prisons in U.S. • 119,813 adults incarcerated in private prisons in U.S. Corrections Corporation of America Wackenhut Corrections Corporation 3/4 of the market
models for public/private control of corrections ownership operating authority
issues for private corrections issues costs & profitability offender types liability & accountability ethics & politics level of services compliance with state law employment, training, & salaries