ultra high energy cosmic rays origin and propagation of uhecrs n.
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Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays -- Origin and Propagation of UHECRs --

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Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays -- Origin and Propagation of UHECRs --

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  1. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays-- Origin and Propagation of UHECRs -- M.Teshima Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Erice Summer School July. 2004

  2. Important Aspects of UHECRs • GZK mechanism • Sources must be nearby • Secondary Gamma rays, neutrinos • Limited candidates of accelerators in the Universe • AGNs, GRBs • Heavy relic particles in our galactic Halo • Rectilinear propagation • Clusters of events

  3. Background Radiations

  4. pair production energy loss -resonance pion production energy loss multi-pion production pion production rate Greisen-Zatsepin-Kuzmin (GZK) effect

  5. Energy Spectrum modification by the interaction with CMBRby Yoshida and Teshima

  6. Berezinsky 2004

  7. The history of the energy of C.R.traveling CMBR sea

  8. Energy loss time of nucleiYamamoto et al. 2003

  9. Energy spectrum of Nucleiby T.Wibig 2004

  10. GZK effect • Energy Spectrum of cosmic rays are modified; suppression above 4x1019eV • Secondary particles • πo 2γ  cascade • γ; pair creation • e; Inverse compton, synchrotron • π± ν • Generally, proton supply the energy to neutrino and gammas

  11. Attenuation length p, γ, e

  12. By G.Sigl

  13. Z-burst model violates EGRET diffuse gamma flux (G.Sigl)

  14. Optimistic Z-burst model (Only neutrino produced at sources) by G.Sigl and D.Semikos

  15. By Kolb, 2003

  16. By Kolb, 2003

  17. By Kolb, 2003

  18. Candidates for EHE C.R. accelerator A.G.N. Pulsar SNR GRB Radio Galaxy Lobe

  19. Matter and galaxies within 93Mpc By A.Kravtsov

  20. Cosmic Ray Energy Spectrumfrom GRBs(10~100) by E.Waxman

  21. Cosmic Ray Propagation inGalactic Disk and Inter Gal.

  22. Arrival Direction Distribution >4x1019eVzenith angle <50deg. • Isotropic in large scale  Extra-Galactic • But, Clusters in small scale (Δθ<2.5deg) • 1triplet and 6 doublets (2.0 doublets are expected from random) • One doublet  triplet(>3.9x1019eV) and a new doublet(<2.6deg)

  23. Expected Auto correlationYoshiguchi et al. 2004 Number density of sources ~10-5 Mpc-3

  24. Summary; origin of UHECRs • UHECRs  Diffuse γ, UHE neutrinos • Fe; galactic origin or neaby galaxies • most economical • can not explain AGASA clusters • P; Over density of nearby sources or very hard energy spectrum, GRBs, AGNs • Super Heavy Relics in our Halo • we should see strong anisotropy • Neutrino with large cross section

  25. Ultra High Energy Cosmic Rays-- Next generation experiments,mainly about EUSO -- M.Teshima Max-Planck-Institut für Physik, München Erice Summer School July. 2004

  26. New Projects for UHECRs

  27. Auger Project Hybrid measurement 1500 water tanks 3 Air fluorescence stations Aperture ~ X30 AGASA

  28. Nature 419, 2002 See the presentation by H.Klages

  29. Telescope Array Project X10 AGASA

  30. TA Detector Configuration Millard County Utah/USA ~600 Scintillators (1.2 km spacing) AGASA x 9 3 x Fluorescence Stations AGASA x 4 Low Energy Hybrid Extension

  31. TA Scintillator Development proto: 50 cm x 50 cm, 1cm thick Wave Length Shifter Fiber readout 50 modules used in L3 for 2.5 years. cutting 1.5 mm deep groove WLS: BCF-91A ( 1 mm Φ ) Final: 3 m2 by 2 PMT readout.

  32. Shower Image Telescope:3mΦSpherical Mirror TA Telescope Development Electronics: 100 ns 14 bit AD conv. + Signal recognition by FPGA Imaging Camera:16X16 PMT Array

  33. EUSOExtreme Universe Space Observatory x300, x3000 AGASA

  34. Large Distance and Large F.O.V.  Large Aperture ~6x105 km2 sr Good Cosmic Ray detector 3000 times sensitive to C.R. bursts 1500 Giga-ton atmosphere Good neutrino detector All Sky coverage North and south skys are covered uniformly.  sensitive to large scale anisotropy Complementary to the observation from the ground Different energy scale and systematics Shower Geometry is well defined Constant distance from detector EUSO Concept

  35. Effective Area ~200,000km2 1/2 Deutschland (360,000km2)

  36. Signal of photons

  37. Shower Track Image(M.C. Simulation) 1020eV shower zenith angle =60 degree Total signal ~ 700p.e.

  38. Small effect by Mie scattering Worst ~20% Cloud go down 2~3km altitude in the night Smaller Absorption in absolute value ~ x0.3 Ground based x0.1~0.01 Atmospheric Transmissionbetter than ground based air fluorescence detector

  39. Detector Element Electronics Focal Surface Support Structure Focal Surface Fresnel Lens 2 Entrance pupil Fresnel Lens 1

  40. Euso Optics Wide Angle and High Resolution F.O.V. +-30°δθ~0.1°

  41. 10 particle/0.1 decade EUSO 10 particle by AGASA/HiRes 1 particle/0.1 decade EUSO 1 particle by AGASA/HiRes

  42. Focal Surface DetectorBaseline design

  43. Hamamatsu MAPMT New Development by Riken Group Higher Photon Collection efficiency R8900-M16/M25 (45%  85%) R7600-M64 Flat Panel MAPMT Hamamatsu H8500

  44. Energy Threshold 5x1019eV

  45. Possible EUSO measurement

  46. Exposure (AGASA unit) EUSO

  47. Angular Resolution

  48. Neutrino Detection capability Just using observables No need for Cherenkov ref. Zenith Angle vs. Xmax Zenith Angle vs. Shower Time width Neutrino Showers Proton Showers Neutrino domain

  49. Neutrino sensitivity (downward neutrino) Auger EUSO Sensitivity 1 events/decade/year EUSO has 10 times larger Aperture than Auger above GZK energy EUSO is sensitive Z-Burst, Top Down Models and highGZK flux.