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Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts Section 2: Origins of the Cold War

Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts Section 2: Origins of the Cold War

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Chapter 18: Cold War Conflicts Section 2: Origins of the Cold War

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  1. Chapter 18:Cold War ConflictsSection 2:Origins of the Cold War

  2. Standards • 11.4.6, 11.8.5, & 11.9.3 • 11.4.6- Trace the declining role of Great Britain and the expanding role of the United States in world affairs after World War II. • 11.8.5- Describe the increased powers of the presidency in response to the Cold War. • 11.9.3- Trace the origins and geopolitical consequences (foreign and domestic) of the Cold War and containment policy, including the following: • The Truman Doctrine • The Korean War

  3. Objectives • Following lecture and reading of this section, students will be able to: • Explain how Communists came to power in China and how the United States reacted. • Summarize the events of the Korean War. • Explain the conflict between President Truman and General MacArthur.

  4. Review • Following WWII, tensions between the former allies (US and USSR) arise again • Economic and Political differences • US- Democratic and Capitalist • Freedom of movement and ownership • USSR- Dictatorship and Communist • Military rule, no private ownership • The plans of each country for post WWII world were very different • The US focus was on Containing Communism • Truman Doctrine & Marshall Plan • USSR focused on keeping Germany weak

  5. The Cold War Heats Up • After World War II • China became a communist nation • Communists defeated Nationalist (US friendly) forces to take over the nation • The Communists were led by Mao Zedong • The Nationalists were led by Chiang Kai-shek • Korea is split into two • Communist north • Democratic south

  6. Mao Zedong (C) Chiang Kai-Shek (D)

  7. China Becomes a Communist Country • Nationalists Versus Communists • Chinese Communists battle nationalist government of Chiang Kai-shek • U.S. supports Chiang, but his government is inefficient and corrupt • Communists, led by Mao Zedong, work to get peasant support • Peasants flock to Red (Communist) Army • By 1945, communists control north China

  8. Renewed Civil War • After WWII, the Japanese who had tried to control China during WWII had been eliminated • The existing government (Nationalists) now faced Communist opposition • 1944-47, U.S. sends military aid to Nationalists to oppose communist rebellion • 1949, Nationalists flee to island of Taiwan • Containment failed! • Communists established People’s Republic of China in mainland

  9. America Reacts to Communist Takeover • U.S. does not recognize Communist Chinese government • U.S. public stunned by Communist takeover • Conservatives blame Truman for not sending enough aid • Some begin to question Truman’s and other democrat’s toughness on Communist expansion

  10. The Korean War • A Divided Country • Since 1910 Japan had controlled Korea • When the Japanese had been defeated in WWII they had to give up all land outside of Japan • 38th parallel (38° N latitude) divides Japanese surrender in Korea • Japanese troops north of 38th parallel surrendered to U.S.S.R. • Japanese troops south of 38th parallel surrendered to U.S. • North and South Korea were formed

  11. Surrender Sparks Differences • The result of the surrender: • U.S.S.R and U.S. now have the ability to create influence in the area in which soldiers surrendered to them • Since Japanese rule is done there is no government • Japanese troops north of 38th parallel surrendered to U.S.S.R. • Korea, north of the 38th parallel becomes Communist • Japanese troops south of 38th parallel surrendered to U.S. • Korea, south of the 38th parallel becomes Democratic

  12. The War Begins • North Korea Attacked South Korea • 1950, North Korea invaded South, began Korean War • South Korea called on UN to help stop invasion; Security Council approves • UN assigned MacArthur to lead forces against North Koreans • 500K South Korean forces • 500K U.S. forces

  13. The United States Fights in Korea • MacArthur’s Counterattack • North Korea drove south, captured Seoul • UN, South Korean troops forced into small defensive zone • Pusan Peninsula • MacArthur attacked North Koreans from two sides and pushed into North Korea • Invasion came behind North Korean advance and forced many North Koreans to surrender • Inchon

  14. Battle of Inchon

  15. The Chinese Enter the Fight • The UN troops made a great recovery • Gaining the upper hand, UN troops push passed the 38th parallel and north very near the North Korean-Chinese border • North Korea could have fallen • China is Communist and does not want a democratic nation on their border • China sent troops in to help North Korea • Chinese troops pushed south; recaptured Seoul • Fighting continued for 2 more years

  16. McArthur and Truman Clash • MacArthur Recommends Attacking China • MacArthur calls for war with China; Truman rejects request • Soviet Union, China have mutual assistance pact • Truman knew that if we attacked China the U.S.S.R. would attack the U.S. • MacArthur continues to push for invasion of China • Truman eventually fired him • Public outraged over hero’s dismissal • Congressional investigation concluded Truman right

  17. Settling for Stalemate • UN, South Korea retake Seoul, advance north, back to 38th parallel • Once back at the 38th parallel, the fight stalls • 1951, Soviet Union suggests cease-fire • 1953 an armistice is signed • Korea still divided • A demilitarized zone established between North and South Korea • Lack of success, high human, financial costs help elect Eisenhower

  18. Ground Control Changes in Korean War • June 1950 • North Korea invades South Korea • September 1950 • North Koreans push UN and South Korean forces to Pusan • Sept. – Oct. 1950 • UN troops recapture 38th parallel and move toward China • Nov. 1950 to Jan. 1951 • Chinese intervention pushes UN forces back to around 38th parallel