PEOPLE SCARED • RED SCARE • ROSENBERGS • USSR A-BOMB • RED CHINA
Joseph McCarthy (1908-1957) was a Republican Senator, on February 9th 1950,McCarthy claimed to have a list of 205 Communists in the State Department.
Joseph McCarthy mainly targeted Democrats associated with the New Deal policies of the 1930s. Harry S. Truman and members of his Democratic administration such as George Marshall were accused of being soft on communism. Truman was portrayed as a dangerous liberal and McCarthy's campaign helped the Republican candidate, Dwight Eisenhower, win the presidential election in 1952.
Conformity • McCarthy's attacks emerged within a climate of political and social conformity. • One state required pro wrestlers to take a loyalty oath before stepping into the ring. • In Indiana, a group of anti-communists indicted Robin Hood (and its vaguely socialistic message that the book's titular hero had a right to rob from the rich and give to the poor) forced librarians to pull the book from the shelves.
Baseball's Cincinnati Reds renamed themselves the "Redlegs." • Cosmetics companies recalled a face powder called "Russian Sable" and renamed it "Dark Dark." • Starting in Dearborn, Michigan, and spreading to other parts of the country, "Miss Loyalty" beauty contests becamethe rage.
In the spring of 1954, however, the tables turned when McCarthy charged United States Army. • The ensuing hearings proved to be McCarthy's downfall.
For the first time, television broadcast allowed the general public to see the Senator as a bully. • "McCarthyism" lives on to describe anti-Communist fervor, reckless accusations, and guilt by association
Civil Defense! 1951 We Have To Be Prepared!
The Korean War was the time when the Cold War became a GLOBAL CONFLICT!
What caused it? • President Truman was interested in the Far East • DUCKS
Domino theory: Europe was not the only place where Communists were coming to power. • In the Far East, too, they were getting powerful – China turned Communist in 1949. • Truman believed that, if one country fell to Communism, then others would follow, like a line of Dominoes. • He was worried that, if Korea fell, the Communists would capture Japan.
Undermine Communism: In April 1950, the American National Security Council issued a report (NSC 68) recommending that America abandon 'containment' and start 'rolling back' Communism
Cold War: Truman realized the USA was in a competition for world domination with the USSR. • By supporting South Korea, America was able to fight Communism without directly attacking Russia.
Stalin, also, was involved in the Far East: • Kim iI Sung visited Stalin. In 1949, he persuaded Stalin that he could conquer South Korea. • Stalin did not think that America would dare to get involved, so he gave his agreement.
Stalin saw a chance to continue the Cold War and discomfort America, but ‘at arm’s length’ – without directly confronting the Americans. • Kim II Sung also went to see Mao Tse-Tung, the leader of China, to get his agreement.
Syngman Rhee (leader of South Korea) In 1950 boasted that he was going to attack North Korea. It was a good enough excuse – the North Koreans invaded South Korea.
June 1950On 25 June 1950, the North Koreans attacked. • The North Korean People's Army (NKPA) easily defeated the Republic of Korea's army (the ROKs) • They captured most of South Korea.
On 27 June America persuaded the United Nations to pass a resolution supporting South Korea. • The Americans sent troops to Korea to reinforce the South Korean Army at Pusan .
On 15 September, the American General MacArthur led a UN amphibious landing at Inchon (near Seoul) behind the NKPA . Out of the 300,000 UN troops, 260,000 were Americans.
In danger of being cut off, the NKPA had to retreat. The Americans drove them back and recaptured South Korea. 125,000 NKPA prisoners were taken. • On 7 October 1950 MacArthur invaded North Korea. He advanced as far as the Chinese border. He boasted that the Americans would be 'home by Christmas'.
Now the Chinese were alarmed. • On 25 November, 200,000 Chinese troops ('People's Volunteers') attacked MacArthur. • They had modern weapons supplied by Russia, and a fanatical hatred of the Americans.
Then, on 31 December, half a million more Chinese troops entered the war and attacked the Americans. • They drove the Americans back (using 'human wave tactics'). • They recaptured North Korea, and advanced into South Korea.
The Americans landed more troops. • The Chinese admitted to losing 390,000 men dead - UN sources put the figure at up to a million Chinese and half a million North Koreans dead.
The Americans drove the Chinese back, but lost 54,000 American soldiers dead doing so. • MacArthur reached the 38th parallel in March 1951
March 1951 – 1953 • Truman told MacArthur to stop. MacArthur was fired when he publicly criticized Truman’s order. • In 1953, Eisenhower became American president. • The Americans threatened to use the atomic bomb if China did not stop fighting. The Chinese agree to a truce, which was signed on 27 July 1953. • It is estimated that 10 million people died in the war - as many as died in the First World War.
Eventually a cease-fire was established on July 27th, 1953, by which time the front line was back in the proximity of the 38th parallel. • Demilitarized zone (DMZ) was established around it, which is still defended today by North Korean troops on one side and South Korean and American troops on the other.
RESULTS • The Korean War was the first armed confrontation of the Cold War. • It created the idea of a limited war, where the two superpowers would fight without descending to an all out war that could involve nuclear weapons. • It also expanded the Cold War, which to that point had mostly been concerned with Europe
Joseph Stalin, 73 years of age, had suffered a cerebral hemorrhage and died at 9:50 p.m. on March 5, 1953