Objectives p. 127 WHII.13 The student will demonstrate knowledge of major events in the second half of the twentieth century by a) explaining key events of the Cold War, including the competition between the American and Soviet economic and political systems and the causes of the collapse of communism in the Soviet Union and Eastern Europe; b) assessing the impact of nuclear weaponry on patterns of conflict and cooperation since 1945; c) describing conflicts and revolutionary movements in eastern Asia, including those in China and Vietnam, and their major leaders, i.e., Mao Tse-tung (Zedong), Chiang Kai-shek, and Ho Chi Minh; d) describing major contributions of selected world leaders in the second half of the twentieth century, including Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Deng Xiaoping.
Essential Understandings p. 128 13a Competition between the United States and the U.S.S.R. laid the foundation for the Cold War. 13a The Cold War influenced the policies of the United States and the U.S.S.R. towards other nations and conflicts around the world. 13b The presence of nuclear weapons has influenced patterns of conflict and cooperation since 1945. 13b Communism failed as an economic system in the Soviet Union and elsewhere. 13c Japanese occupation of European colonies in Asia heightened demands for independence after World War II. 13c After World War II, the United States pursued a policy of containment against communism. This policy included the development of regional alliances against Soviet and Chinese aggression. The Cold War led to armed conflict in Korea and Vietnam. 13d World leaders made major contributions to events in the second half of the twentieth century.
Essential Questions • p. 128 13a What events led to the Cold War? 13a What were the causes and consequences of the collapse of the Soviet Union? 13b What was the impact of nuclear weapons? 13c How did the Cold War influence conflicts in Eastern Asia after World War II? 13c What was the policy of containment? 13d What roles did Indira Gandhi, Margaret Thatcher, Mikhail Gorbachev, and Deng Xiaoping play in major events in the second half of the twentieth century?
Why do I need to know this? • p. 128 1. The conflicts between the two superpowers played a major role in reshaping the modern world. 2. China remains a Communist country and a major player on the world stage. 3. Today, Vietnam is a Communist country and Korea is split into Communist and non-Communist nations.
The First World • friends of the United States • The Second World • friends of the Soviet Union • The Third World • those that support both world powers
Cold War • intense rivalry developed between the United States and the USSR 2. symbolic struggle between the free enterprise system and communism
Rivalry 1. Tehran Conference a. 1943– meeting of Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt b. U.S. and Great Britain opened a front in France (D-Day) while USSR focused on pushing Germany back and occupying Eastern Europe c. Britain negotiated with Soviets over influence in Greece, Yugoslavia and Hungry, while U.S. supported self- determination for these nations • 2. Yalta Conference • a. Feb. 1945 – meeting of Stalin, Churchill, and Roosevelt • b. Churchill and Roosevelt wanted to limit Stalin’s influence in Eastern Europe, but Stalin wanted a communist government set up in Poland • c. decision to divide up Germany into four occupation zones
Rivalry 3. Potsdam Conference a. July 1945 – meeting of Stalin, Churchill, and Truman. b. War in Europe over, but still going on in the Pacific c. Stalin had set up communist regimes in Romania, Bulgaria, Poland, Hungary and Yugoslavia d. Stalin made it clear that he had no intention of following regulations set by Yalta conference
4. United Nations General Assembly a. Met in Paris on December 10, 1948 b. Created the Universal Declaration of Human Rights c. first global expression of rights to which all human beings are inherently entitled
Eastern Europe • the Iron Curtain • Soviet Union feared invasion • established pro-Soviet governments in • Eastern Europe – they were puppets • of the USSR 4. Stalin refused to allow free elections
Containment • holding back the spread of communism – US becomes protector • Truman Doctrine – made American military and financial aid available to any nation threatened by communism • “ I believe that it must be the policy of the United States to support free peoples who are resisting attempted subjugation by armed minorities or by outside pressures”
Marshall Plan • economic plan to help European countries regain prosperity through loans (to rebulid) • a. U.S. supports Greece, Turkey, Iran who are under Soviet pressure • European countries had to give control of their economy to the US • USSR refused and made its satellites refuse 4. those who participated experienced great success
Military Alliances 1. April 1949 – North Atlantic Treaty Organization (NATO) was formed by the US and western Europe a. military alliance in which countries vowed to back each other up and halt the spread of Soviet Communism 2. 1955 – Soviet Union and its allies signed the Warsaw Pact – military alliance to counter NATO
Berlin Airlifts 1.Britain, France and the US occupied West Germany; USSR occupied East Germany a. same with Berlin • 1947 – Soviet Union blockaded the city of Berlin • June 1948 – USSR blocked all land access from the West into East Berlin – BERLIN WALL a. 2 million Berliners depended on the West for aid 3. Allies airlifted supplies for 11 months (Berlin Airlifts) a. planes landed every 3 minutes b. USSR lifted its blockade
4. 1953-1961 – more than 3 million East Germans fled into West Berlin a. Nikita Khrushchev ordered a wall to be built – August 13, 1961 b. Berlin Wall – 26 miles long and 15 feet high c. The wall stopped all emigration
Nikita Khrushchev Speech
Nuclear Deterrence • the Soviet Union detonated their first atomic bomb in 1949 • Soviets began a mass build up of nuclear weapons believing that a nuclear war could be fought and won • the US began a mass build up in response based on the idea of nuclear deterrence – each country will have so many nuclear weapons that neither would risk a war with the other • today there are 9 countries • that either have or • are suspected of having • nuclear weapons a. Russia has 11,000 b. the US has 8,500
China • By the end of 19th century – resistance to the Qing Dynasty because of territorial losses to other nations • Gentry and Merchants begin joining secret societies to overthrow the government • In defiance many cut off their top knots to express disgust for their leadership
Revolution of 1911 • Last emperor of China was overthrown • Sun Yat-sen– leader of revolution • Political party – Guomindang or Kuo·min·tang (National People’s Party) • Tries to establish a republican form of government • Local warlords continue struggled for power • Welcomes Soviet advisors to organize the country and members of the newly formed Chinese Communist Party
Death of Sun Yat-sen • 1925 • Party leadership falls to Jiang Jieshi – better known as Chiang Kai-shek • Ruled as dictator and wanted to crush all opponents • Soviets • Communists • Local warlords
Long March • Rival and leader of the Communist Party – Mao Zedong arose • Pursued Mao’s army across china and forced him to go into hiding
China • civil war after World War II • Communists (led by Mao Zedong) • v. • Nationalists (led by Chiang Kai-shek) • Communists won and renamed China the People’s Republic of China 4. Nationalists fled to Taiwan (still there today) a. there are two Chinese Countries – China and Taiwan b. still a lot of conflict between the two today 5. communism appealed to the people of China