Apartheid South Africa
Apartheid South Africa Divided
What is Apartheid? • Apartheid is a system of racial segregation peculiar to the Republic of South Africa • South Africa was traditionally a segregated nation • 1948 the policy of apartheid is put into effect by the Afrikaaner Nationalist Party government.
Why Apartheid? • The purpose was the separation of the races: not only of whites from nonwhites, but also of nonwhites from each other (tribes). • Nonwhites made up approximately 90% of the population.
Development Policy • Under Hendrik Verwoerd apartheid developed into a policy known as “separate development,” where each African (Bantu) group was to become a nation with its own homeland, or Bantustan. • Only 14% of the country was set aside for African groups, the remaining 86% of the land was set aside for whites. • White land included the major mineral areas and the cities.
Black Oppression • Movement to and between other parts of the country was strictly regulated, the location of residence or employment was restricted, and blacks were not allowed to vote or own land. • Most African urban dwellers had to live in townships on a city’s perimeter. All Africans living outside the Bantustans were subject to strict curfew regulations and passbook requirements, especially in the cities; if unable to produce these when challenged they were subject to arrest.
Must carry an identification passbook at all times. http://www.un.org
Who were the ANC? • In 1912, educated Africans organized a political party, later known as the African National Congress (ANC) • Its members worked through legal means (usually non-violent), protesting laws that restricted the freedom of black Africans. • Their efforts, however, had no effect on South Africa’s white government. Still, the ANC did build a framework for political action in later years
African National Congress Continued • In the 1950s, as Afrikaaner nationalists imposed harsh new laws, the ANC organized marches, boycotts, and strikes. • As protests continued, government violence increased. In 1960, police gunned down 69 men, women, and children taking part in a peaceful demonstration in Sharpeville, a black township outside Johannesburg.
Black Resistance Sharpeville, 1960
ANC Continued… • The massacre at Sharpeville stunned the world and pushed some ANC activists to shift from nonviolent protest to armed struggle. • As a result, the government outlawed the ANC and cracked down on groups that opposed apartheid.
Jailed without a trial Jailed without a trial
Cold War realities vs. morality? • What direction to take?
Economic Sanctions • External economic pressure was one of the biggest forces against apartheid • International sanctions severely affected the South African economy, raising the cost of necessities, cutting investment, even forcing many American corporations to disinvest. • Unions, churches, and students organized protests throughout the 70s and 80s.
Key Players in Apartheid • African National Congress (ANC) • Nelson Mandela Bishop Desmond Tutu F.W. De Klerk & Mandela
Key info on Nelson Mandela • He attended law school at University of South Africa and was active in African National Congress (ANC) • He initially advocated nonviolent resistance to apartheid • However, after a group of peaceful demonstrators were massacred he organized a paramilitary branch of the ANC to carry out guerrilla warfare against the white government.
Mandela Continued • Arrested and jailed in 1964 for sabotage • sentenced to life in prison, where he became the leading symbol of South Africa’s oppressed black majority. • Released from prison in 1990 by de Klerk, was elected ANC president in 1994, and served until 1999 • Awarded the Nobel Peace Prized in 1993 along with FW de Klerk
Key Info on F.W. de Klerk • President of South Africa from 1989-94 • Initiated end of apartheid during his reign as president • Lifted ban on anti-apartheid political parties and released Nelson Mandela from prison in 1990. • Repealed apartheid laws in 1991 • Jointly awarded Nobel Peace Prize for Peace in 1993 along with Nelson Mandela
Key info on Bishop Desmond Tutu: • 1976-protests known as the Soweto Riots, against the government's use of Afrikaans in black schools became a massive uprising against apartheid. • Tutu began supporting an economic boycott of South Africa. • Was Bishop of Lesotho from 1976 until 1978, when he became Secretary-General of the South African Council of Churches. He continue his work against apartheid with agreement from nearly all churches.
Desmond Tutu continued: • Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1984 for his role in calling attention to black inequality in S. Africa by advocating for economic sanctions • In 1995, he was appointed chair of the South Africa’s Truth and Reconciliation Commission, a group that investigates apartheid era crimes.
Key info on Sun City • Sun City is a resort area which brings in lots of $ for South Africa’s tourist industry. • In the mid 1980s, musicians including U2’s Bono, Run D.M.C., Peter Gabriel, etc. joined forces to create the album Sun City: Artists Against Apartheid • The song called attention to the discrimination going on, as well as the US governments reluctance to place sanctions on South Africa. • It also called for musicians to boycott playing concerts at resorts in Sun City.
Changes • The severe shortage of skilled labor led to lifting limits on African wages, and granting Africans the right to strike and organize unions. • Pressures from sanctions began to change life in South Africa and apartheid laws-such as those banning interracial marriage and segregating facilities-were repealed or fell into disuse.
Changes Continued • 1991-President de Klerk obtained the repeal of the remaining apartheid laws and called for the drafting of a new constitution. • In 1993, a multiracial, multiparty transitional government was approved, and fully free elections were held in 1994, which gave majority representation to the African National Congress and made Nelson Mandela the first black president of South Africa.