Topic no6 Collected J HPatel
BIOMEDICAL WASTESREGULATIONS • BIOMEDICAL WASTES (M&H) RULES 1998 - E(P) ACT 1986 as amended in 2000, 2003 ,(draft amendment)2011 • MOE&F- NODAL AGENCY • PRESCRIBED AUTHORITY-IMPLEMENTATION These rules provide a system for regulating handling BMW which includes collection, segregation at source, norms for packaging labeling and options for treatment and disposal along with the standard for treatment technologies. • For proper management & Handling of Bio-Medical Waste. • Applicable to all persons who generate, collect, receive, store, transport, treat, dispose or handle bio-medical waste in any form.
Health Care Waste Management Introduction Wastes generated from health care facilities are varied in nature, ranging from ordinary organic waste to highly hazardous liquid and solid waste. The waste thus generated is a potential health and environmental hazard, and if not properly managed can pose a serious health risk to health care providers, patients, and the general public. Therefore, institutionalizing effective waste management systems in all health care facilities is understood by RHSDP as a key prerequisite to improving efficiency and effectiveness of health care. Government of India promulgated the Bio-medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, which detail good practices to be followed and the roles and responsibilities for all those concerned in the generation and effective disposal of health care waste. The development and implementation of effective waste management system is based upon cooperation and ongoing interaction between all the stakeholders, which includes hospital management, municipal bodies, pollution control board, manufacturers of equipment and supplies, environmentalists, NGOs, media, medical and nursing schools and the general public. Authorization (Legal Aspect) In compliance with Bio-medical waste (Management & Handling) Rules1998, the health care facilities are required to obtaining authorization / renewal of authorization certificate from state pollution control board. Obtaining authorization from RPCB is necessary for all health care facilities with registered patient (OPD & IPD) in excess of 1000 per calendar month. However, implementation of HCWM system is recommended at all health care establishments. The formats of authorization application and affidavit are as following:• Formats of Authorization Application for 50 and more than 50 bedded hospitals• Formats of Authorization Application for 30 to 49 bedded hospitals• Formats of Authorization Application for PHCs and Dispensaries
Hospital Waste Management Plan Hospital Waste disposal is a multifaceted activity in which different stages as given below are highly interdependent both technically as well as organizationally. The guiding principals are broadly understood as follows • Generation / Minimization: - According to the Rules waste generated in the hospitals is classified into ten f categories viz. Human Anatomical waste, Animal waste, Microbiology & Biotechnology waste, Waste sharps, Discarded medicines and Cyto toxic drugs, Soiled waste, Solid waste, liquid waste, Incineration ash, Chemical waste. Significant reduction of waste generated in healthcare facilities is encouraged by adopting the principles of 3 R’s, i.e., Reduction, Recycle and Reuse. • Waste Segregation: - Segregation is the most important step, which is followed for individual type of wastes as per bio-medical waste category. It is done at the point of generation e.g. all patient activity areas, diagnostic service areas, operation theatres, labor rooms, treatment rooms, etc. The responsibility of segregation lies with the generators of bio-medical waste, i.e., doctors, nurses, technicians, etc.
• Collection: - Bins / receptacles: Only non-chlorinated plastic collection bags are being used. This ensures that the items are not being recycled or reused by rag pickers. Waste is being collected daily and transported to the designated storage site / deep burial pits. Bags are removed after they are 2/3 rd filled with bio medical waste. • Transportation: - Within the hospital, waste routes are designated and time of transfer of wastes to avoid the passage of waste through crowded and patient care areas. Dedicated wheeled containers, trolleys/carts are in use to transport the plastic bags to the site of storage / deep burial. The containers are so designated that waste can be easily discharged into them and the foot operated lid closes the infected waste inside in a secure manner.
• Storage: - According to Bio-Medical Waste Rules, storage means holding of biomedical waste for such period of time, at the end of which waste is treated and disposed off. A storage location for hospital waste collection is designated inside the establishment. The waste, in bags or containers is being stored in an area earmarked for the purpose. • End Treatment and Disposal: - The Department of Local Bodies, functioning Under the Local Self Government (LSG), GoR has been entrusted the responsibility to set-up Common Treatment Facilities (CTFs’) in select cities / towns. The CTFs are responsible for waste collection and transportation from the hospitals site, followed by treatment and destruction as necessary and finally disposal at the site of CTF. The owner of CTF seeks authorization from the prescribed authority under the BMW Rules, namely Rajasthan Pollution Control Board (RPCB) before installing the equipment and treatment techniques.
MINISTRY OF ENVIRONMENT & FORESTS NOTIFICATION New Delhi, 20th July, 1998 S.O. 630 (E).-Whereas a notification in exercise of the powers conferred by Sections 6, 8 and 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986) was published in the Gazette vide S.O. 746 (E) dated 16 October, 1997 inviting objections from the public within 60 days from the date of the publication of the said notification on the Bio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998 and whereas all objections received were duly considered.. Now, therefore, in exercise of the powers conferred by section 6, 8 and 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 the Central Government hereby notifies the rules for the management and handling of bio-medical waste.
Hospitals/Nursing Homes/Maternity centre/Pathological laboratories/Health care centers/Establishments etc. 1. They shall refrain from throwing any bio-medical waste on the streets or open spaces, as well as into the municipal dustbins or the domestic waste collection sites. 2. They shall also refrain from throwing any ordinary solid waste on footpaths, streets or open spaces/nallas. 3. They shall keep colour-coded bins or bags as per the directions of the Govt. of India, Ministry of Environment dated 20th Bio-medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules 1998, and follow the directions of CPCB & State PCBs from time to time for the storage of biomedical waste including amputated limbs, tissues, soiled bandages, used injections, syringes, etc.
Disposal of Bio-Medical Waste All hospitals, nursing homes, pathology laboratories, health care establishments generating Biomedical waste should dispose of the Bio-medical waste strictly in terms of Bio-medical Waste (Management & Handling) Rules 1998. This responsibility is of the waste producer. They should organize themselves and give a contract to a private operator to collect their waste and dispose of at a central facility. All the towns may direct the medical institutions to organize themselves expeditiously and facilitate the creation of waste treatment and disposal facility through a private operator to ensure scientific disposal of waste.
Biomedical Waste All syringes, medication vials, alcohol swabs and cotton ball that have come in contact with this medication or with blood or body fluids cannot be disposed of in your regular garbage or dumpster but must be placed in the Sharps Container for disposal as biomedical waste.It is suggested to use color coded bins for disposing Septic waste and food waste in a hospital or Clinics
COLOUR CODING AND TYPE OF CONTAINER FOR DISPOSAL OF BIO-MEDICAL WASTES
Bio-medical waste bag ready for incineration
Bio medical waste symbol to be tagged in hospitals and clinics at disposal locations for safety.
S.O. 630 (E).-Whereas a notification in exercise of the powers conferred by Sections 6, 8 and 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 (29 of 1986) was published in the Gazette vide S.O. 746 (E) dated 16 October, 1997 inviting objections from the public within 60 days from the date of the publication of the said notification on theBio-Medical Waste (Management and Handling) Rules, 1998and whereas all objections received were duly considered.. Now, therefore, in exercise of the powers conferred by section 6, 8 and 25 of the Environment (Protection) Act, 1986 the Central Government hereby notifies the rules for the management and handling of bio-medical waste.
Table 1. BMW Rules 2011 vs. 1998 One of the features of the new rules is that now every occupier, operator Table 1. BMW Rules 2011 vs. 1998