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Tsunami Warning System

Tsunami Warning System

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Tsunami Warning System

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  1. TsunamiWarning System

  2. Tsunami An ocean wave, generated by a submarine event such as an earthquake or volcanic eruption They have enough energy to travel across entire ocean basins

  3. 5 hours and 30 minutes from trigger

  4. Tsunami Warning System National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration DART II Buoys • Deep Ocean • Assessment and • Reporting of • Tsunamis • First six in 2001 • Complete 30 buoy system in 2008

  5. How DART II works… Temperature and pressure readings every 15 minutes in standard mode (15-s) When an event is detected: • 15 second values are transmitted for the first few minutes • For the next 4 hours, 1 minute values are transmitted

  6. DART I vs DART II DART I (phase out in 2008) • 1 hour communication • 1 way communication DART II • 15 minute intervals • 2 way communication Both use the GOES Satellite for communication Geostationary Operational Environmental Satellite

  7. All based on pressure The DART II Tsunameter (on the ocean floor) monitors the pressure and tidal changes A standard is set by NOAA • 30 mm (3 cm) for the Pacific Ocean • Uses a formula to determine if the threshold has been exceeded

  8. Detection Software Uses this formula If Hp(t’) is greater than 30 mm in the Pacific, a tsunami is reported by the buoy Hp(t’)

  9. Tide/Pressure Spike Normal Tide/Pressure Activity on the Ocean Floor

  10. Program by the National Weather Service Helps to develop Tsunami Emergency Plans Such as: • 24 hour command and control center • One or more ways to alert the community • Promote public readiness • Develop a Tsunami Action Plan

  11. Tsunami Warning Centers Alaska • Alaska, British Columbia, Washington, Oregon, and California • US Gulf and Atlantic Coast States • Canadian Provinces Hawai’i • All of the Pacific • Responsible for monitoring strong tsunamigenic areas

  12. Tsunami Warning System Tsunami Information Bulletin • Threat exists, no active tsunami Tsunami Watch • Earthquake could have triggered a tsunami • Tsunami Warning Center (TWC) waiting for DART information Tsunami Warning • TWC thinks threat is high • Will include arrival times for areas of the Pacific

  13. Tsunami Warning

  14. Tsunami Warning

  15. City of Honolulu, Hawai’i

  16. Honolulu International Airport Reef Runway (8R) Primary Runway

  17. Evacuation Causes URGENT TSUNAMI WARNING • Possible tsunami generated by a local earthquake • Sirens will sound • Immediate evacuation TSUNAMI WARNING • Tsunami approach confirmed • Sirens will sound

  18. Tsunami Evacuation • TSUNAMI EVACUATION • Sirens will sound • Begin evacuation when the evacuation order is issued • 3 to 4 hours prior to wave arrival • City busses will leave evacuation zones • Roads will be sealed off by police • No later than 45 minutes prior to first wave arrival.

  19. Hurricane Evacuation Tsunami and Hurricane Evacuation • Similar to progression of evacuations • Similar response by local law enforcement

  20. Tsunami Warning System All based on DART II Buoy system • Around the Pacific Ocean • “Defense” for Pacific and Hawai’i • Pressure of passing tsunami wave Much like a Hurricane Evacuation system

  21. The Questions? • Does it work? • Would the full system protect the Pacific Rim? • Does the DART System help local governments to save lives?

  22. Web Resources/Credits NWS TsunamiReady™ Page: www.tsunamiready.noaa.gov Tsunami Warning Centers Page: www.tsunami.gov NOAA Tsunami Page: www.tsunami.noaa.gov NWS StormReady Page: www.stormready.noaa.gov Government of Hawai’i: www.hawaii.gov