Middle Eastern Studies Civilization Part 2
Ottoman Empire Kept colonization out of the Middle East until the mid-1800s
Sykes-Picot Agreement, 1916 Divided the Ottoman Empire into Syria, Lebanon, Iraq, Jordan, and Palestine The Arabian Peninsula was ignored until the 1930s when oil was discovered Iran was under Russian/Soviet control Egypt would be under British control due to the Suez Canal.
20th Century • Boundaries drawn by Europe were random and didn’t consider cultural differences. • Kurds, Kuwaitis, Lebanese • Most of 20th Century, Lebanon was under French control • 1st half of 20th Century, Palestine was under British control/Balfour Declaration • Jordan was also under British control
All of the colonialism did no cause the initial humiliation of Muslims – it was the… The Birth of Israel
An-Naksah – “The Setback” • Six Day War • At this point, the Arabs lost faith in their dictators and began to feel that the PLO was their best bet
Religious leaders, like Khomeini, began to subtly preach that the Arab failures were due to the fact that the people were “bad” Muslims. The urged the people to rejoin the Islamic faith and purify themselves to begin to win. This is when Islamic jihad - based on the Qur’an, began to be encouraged.
Retaliation • Yom Kippur War – Egypt • Yom Kippur War – Syria • Arab countries were backed by the U.S.S.R. • Israel almost defeated until U.S. came to her aid. • Israel ended up winning.
Vocab • Imperialism • Ottoman Empire • Sykes-Picot Agreement • Ethnic • Communism • Oslo Accords • Camp David Accords • Tabas Talks • IMF • Fundamentalist • Millet System • Political Liberalization • Political Democratization • Secularism • Conservative • modernization
“Islam is the answer, and jihad is the way.” • The mantra of the Muslims. • The mantra of the Muslim Brotherhood: • Allah is our objective. The prophet is our leader. The Qur’an is our law. Jihad is our way. Dying in the way of Allah is our highest hope.”
Jihad • Greater Jihad – “inner jihad” – the highest, most important spiritual and intellectual striving to do the will of Allah and abstain from sin and temptation • Lesser Jihad – “outer jihad” – violent, holy war used to punish infidels and expand the kingdom of Allah on earth. This is the definition found in the hadiths – sayings of Muhammed.