~ AKS 30a ~ Summarize the impact of the Neolithic Revolution
The Stone Age • Scientists divide the Stone Age into 2 parts: • The Paleolithic Age • AKA “Old Stone Age” • 2.5 million B.C. to 8000 B.C. • The Neolithic Age • AKA “New Stone Age” • 8000 B.C. to 3000 B.C.
The First Humans • They faced two major struggles for survival: • Finding food • Protectingthemselves • They used fire, built shelters, made clothes, and developed spoken language.
What is a Nomad? • People who lived in the early part of the Old Stone Age. • They moved from place to place in search of food.
Hunter-gatherers • Nomads found food by huntingfor meat and gatheringnuts, berries and roots.
Cro-Magnon Tools • Cro-Magnon people used toolsto hunt. • They were advanced hunters.
QUICK QUESTION: In what ways did Cro-Magnon people change human culture?
The Beginnings of Agriculture • Humans lived in small groups of 25to 70people. • Some humans were throwing leftover seeds out into the fields. Their tribe would move on, and when they would return a yearlater they would find plants where they had thrown the seeds!!! • This discovery is also known as… THE NEOLITHIC REVOLUTION!!!
Scientist think that . . . . A WARMER CLIMATE + THE ACCIDENTAL DISCOVERY OF FARMING = The Agricultural Revolution AKA The Neolithic Revolution
So what? Who cares? EVERYONE!!!! Finally, instead of relying on GATHERING food, people began to PRODUCE their own food. Now they don’t have to live the nomadic lifestyle anymore!! They can SETTLE!!!!
Farming Villages Grow into Cities • New advanced farmingtools were created to make farming more efficient and less time consuming….. • Whenever food can be produced at a faster rate, the POPULATION will INCREASE!!! • More food = More people!!! • Example – Slash and Burn Farming!!!
Slash-and-Burn Farming • The process of cutting trees and burning them to clear a field. • The ashes were used to fertilize the soil.
Irrigation – brought water to the crops. • Invention of the wheel and the sailboat helped people travel easier, thus spreading advanced ideas at a faster rate!!! • Domestication of animals…..
Domestication of Animals • Humans began to raise animals. • They tamed horses, dogs, goats, pigs, etc. • QUICK QUESTION – Why do you think they decided to “domesticate the animals”?
Cities Form Civilizations • What is a “civilization”? • A CIVILIZATION is defined as a complex CULTURE with these FIVE CHARACTERISTICS: • 1. Advanced cities • 2. Specialized workers • 3. Complex institutions • 4. Record keeping • 5. Improved technology
Civilization – 1. Advanced Cities Large POPULATION that serves as a CENTER OF TRADE for the surrounding area.
Civilization – 2. Specialized Workers • QUICK QUESTION – • Are people still spending their ENTIRE day “hunting & gathering”? • Specialization: • The development of skillsneeded for one specific kind of work. • Artisans: • Skilled workers who make goods by hand • Name 3 examples….
Civilization – 3. Complex Institutions • GOVERNMENT. • SCHOOLS. • RELIGIOUSINSTITUTIONS. • ECONOMICINSTITUTIONS.
Civilization – 4. Record Keeping • POPULATION RECORDS • births, deaths, etc. • ECONOMIC RECORDS • debts, payments, how much is sold, inventory. • GOVERNMENT RECORDS • elected officials, historical events, laws, calendars, etc. • Scribes: • People who used writing to keep records. • Most highly educated in the city.
Civilization – 5. Improved Technology • Improved technology provided new tools and methods to solve problems. • Sail, plow, wheel, slash and burn farming, irrigation systems, etc.