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The cold War

The cold War

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The cold War

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  1. The cold War Eisenhower’s Policies

  2. Eisenhower’s “New Look” • American were ready for change. • Many of Truman’s policies were not working. • Soviets had the atomic bomb. • Soviets had a hold on Eastern Europe. • China fell to communism. • American troops had been sent to Korea to fight in a war.

  3. Eisenhower’s “New Look” • Truman decided not to run again in 1952. • Democrats nominated Adlai Stevenson (IL) • Republicans nominated Dwight D. Eisenhower Richard M. Nixon Eisenhower wins by a landslide!

  4. “More Bang for the Buck” • A belief in a strong economy. • Instead of a large expensive army, the nation must “be prepared to use atomic weapons in all forms”.

  5. Massive Retaliation • Eisenhower believed that small wars were too expensive and could not contain communism. • Threaten to use nuclear weapons if a Communist state tried to seize territory by force. • Massive Retaliation

  6. Sputnik Crisis • Technology needed! • B-52 could fly across continents and drop nuclear bombs. • Intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs). • Submarines capable of launching nuclear missiles. • Soviets had already developed their own! • 1957 Soviets launched Sputnik. • First artificial satellite to orbit the earth.

  7. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) • To coordinate research in rocket science and space exploration. • National Defense Education Act (NDEA) • Provided funds for education and training in science, math, and foreign languages.

  8. Brinkmanship • John Foster Dulles- SECRETARY OF STATE. • “You have to take chances for peace, just as you must take chances in war.. • “The ability to get to the verge without getting into the war is the necessary art..” BRINKMANSHIP FORCE THE OTHER SIDE TO BACK DOWN!

  9. The Korean War Ends • Eisenhower promised to end the Korean conflict. • Too many lives lost. • Unpopular with American public. • 1953 Armistice signed. • Demilitarized Zone (DMZ) • No victory- but communism contained.

  10. The Taiwan Crisis • 1954 China threatened to seize two islands off China’s coast from the Nationalists. • Eisenhower asked Congress to authorize the use of force to defend Taiwan. • American navy would defend Taiwan and hinted that nuclear weapons would be used. Brinkmanship!

  11. The Suez Crisis • American help to Egypt to build a dam on the Nile River. • Problem: Egypt had bought weapons from Communist Czechoslovakia. QUESTION: “Should American support a nation who buys their weapons from a Communist nation?

  12. The Suez Crisis • Egyptian troops seized control of the Suez Canal – then they would use the profits to pay for the dam. • Britain and France got involved. • Soviet Union threatened rocket attacks on Britain and France and offered to send troops to help Egypt. • Britain and France called off the invasion, but the Soviet Union had won a diplomatic victory- • Other Arab nations began accepting Soviet aid….

  13. Fighting Communism Covertly • Hidden operations done by CIA= Covert • Central Intelligence Agency. • Developing Nations looked to the Soviets for how to industrialize. • CIA staged covert operations to overthrow anti-American leaders and replace them with pro-American leaders.

  14. Iran • 1953 Mohammed Mossadegh moved against the pro-American Shah of Iran who was forced into exile. • U.S. sent agents to organize street riots and arrange a coup that kicked Mossadegh out and restored the Shah to power.

  15. Guatemala • CIA acted to protect American owned property. • In ‘51 a pro-Communist, JacoboArbenz Guzman, came to power. • He took over large estates, including those of American-owned United Fruit Company. • In ‘54 Communist Czech was delivering arms. • CIA responded by arming the Guatemala opposition and training them in secret camps. The CIA-trained forces invaded and forced Guzman out.

  16. Hungary • 1953 Stalin died. • 1956 Nikita Khrushchev was the new leader. • Critical of Stalin’s policies. (CIA shared speech with Eastern Europe). • Riots erupted Full scale uprising • Tanks rolled into Budapest, Hungary and crushed the rebellion.