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Influencing Behavior: The Human Animal

Influencing Behavior: The Human Animal

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Influencing Behavior: The Human Animal

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  1. Influencing Behavior:The Human Animal Chapters 9-11

  2. Analyze these ads.How are the advertisersattempting to influencereaders to purchase the product?You will have 45 seconds to write down your thoughts for each ad.

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  6. The Wheel of Consumer Analysis

  7. Key Ideas • Classical Conditioning • Conditioned stimulus, unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned response • Instrumental/Operant Conditioning • Positive vs. negative reinforcement • Punishment • Extinction • Shaping • Social Learning (Modeling) • Reward schedules • Applications to Marketing

  8. UCS CS UCR CR PavlovClassical Conditioning +

  9. Another View Let’s see this in action: Phil Zimbardo

  10. Training Your Roommate

  11. Classical Conditioning - Another View

  12. The Altoid Experiment

  13. Exhibit 9.2

  14. SkinnerOperant Conditioning What does this have to do with consumer behavior?

  15. Quote… All we need to know in order to describe and explain behavior is this: actions followed by good outcomes are likely to recur , and actions followed by bad outcomes are less likely to recur. -- Skinner (1953)

  16. Key Terms • Positive reinforcement • Response becomes more likely after a reward • Negative reinforcement • Response becomes more likely after the termination of an aversive stimulus • Not punishment! (punishment decreases the likelihood of behavior) • Punishment • Response becomes less likely when it results in the administration of an undesirable consequence or termination of a positive consequence • Extinction • Response becomes less likely after it repeatedly fails to  desired outcome • Related idea: Learned helplessness • Shaping • Initially reinforce actions that only approach the desired response • Gradually reinforce responses that come closer and closer to desired response • Skinner Example; Example 2 – Training Jack to Roll Over • Vicarious Learning (or Modeling) • We learn “response-consequence” contingencies by observing others • Bandura’s classic study (modeling aggression)

  17. Key Schedules of Reinforcement • Continuous • Reward given each time desired response is performed (e.g., lever presses) • Fixed Ratio • A reward is given after a fixed number of responses (every 2 presses) • Leads to a high and steady level of responding • Fixed Interval • A reward is given after first desired response occurs after a fixed time interval (e.g., every 2 minutes) • Scallop pattern; responding speeds up as end of time interval approaches • Variable Ratio • A reward is given after a variable number of responses (sometimes 2 presses, sometimes 5, sometimes 1) • Leads to highly persistent responding; very hard to extinguish

  18. Before Skinner…Thorndike and WatsonInstrumental and Classical Conditioning Zimbardo on Thorndike’s Law of Effect and Little Albert (classical & instrumental conditioning) Edward Thorndike Skinner vs. Watson John Watson

  19. Discriminative StimuliOr, How to Teach a Pigeon to Read Click here to witness The Most Amazing Video You Have Ever Seen

  20. What does this have to do with CB? Marketers use a variety of principles of reinforcement to elicit the desire response from consumers

  21. Exhibit 9.4

  22. Let’s return to the ads.How are the advertisersattempting to influencereaders to purchase the product?Use concepts from today’s lecture…