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Physical Exams and Vital Signs

Physical Exams and Vital Signs

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Physical Exams and Vital Signs

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  1. Physical Exams and Vital Signs Mr. Pace

  2. Physical Exams and Vital signs • Identify instruments used for a physical exams • List observable signs of problems associated with each body system • Take a preliminary animal history from a client • Measure and record vital statistics

  3. Instruments for the P.E. • Stethoscope • Used to listen to heart, lung, or gut sounds • Thermometer • Used to measure body temperature

  4. Instruments for P.E. • Scale • To measure weight

  5. Instruments for the p.e. • Clock/Timer • Used to time pulse and respiration rate • Medical Chart • To see past history and record info

  6. Instruments for P.e. • Otoscope • Used to see inside ears • Ophthalmoscope • Used to see eyes

  7. Instruments for P.e. • Gauze, Q-Tips, Cotton Balls • Used to clean ears or around eyes • Used to take swabs for tests

  8. Instruments for P.e. • Exam Gloves • Used to keep hands clean….(er) • Restraint Equipment

  9. Observable Signs • Integumentary System • Coat – Shiny/Full or Dull/Brittle • Bald Patches • Rashes • Dry, Flaking Skin

  10. Observable Signs • Musculoskeletal System • Is there any visible lameness?

  11. Observable Signs • Circulatory System • Coughing • Fainting • Dyspnea • Heart Murmurs

  12. Observable Signs • Respiratory System • Coughing • Sneezing • Nasal Discharge • Exercise intolerance • Cyanosis

  13. Observable Signs • Digestive System • Eating Normally • Diet Changes • Toxin exposure (rat poison, chocolate, antifreeze) • Vomiting or Diarrhea

  14. Observable Signs • Urinary System • Abnormal Discharge, smell, color • Swelling • Difficulty or inability to urinate

  15. Observable Signs • Nervous System • Seizures • Behavior Changes • Head Tilt

  16. Observable signs • Others: • Lymph nodes – swollen • Eyes – Excessive tears, discharge • Ears – discharge, unusual odor, head shaking • Mouth – Gums and Teeth healthy, moist and pink mucous membranes

  17. Patient History 20 questions…. What are the most helpful question to ask?

  18. Patient history • Characteristics of good questions: • Open ended questions • Owner is more likely to give more information than if you ask yes/no questions • Lead to all pertinent information • Vaccine history, exposure to other animals, date of injury or illness onset, etc

  19. Patient History • Basics: • Owner info • Breed and species • Age and Gender

  20. Patient History • Illness/injury report: • List of symptoms • When did it start? • Onset of injury/illness

  21. Patient History • Background Info • Vaccine History • Illness/injury history • Exposure to other animals

  22. Patient History • Make a list of at least 5 good questions for each category • Basics • Illness/Injury Report • Background Information

  23. Vital Statistics T P R • Temperature • Pulse • Respiration

  24. Vital Statistics • Temperature • Why body temperature changes: • Infection/disease • Excitement/stress • Environment

  25. Vital statistics • How to take a temperature • Turn thermometer on (digital) • Lubricate end • Insert into rectum and hold until it beeps (2-3 min)

  26. Vital Statistics • Know the terminology • Hypothermia = below normal body temp • Hyperthermia = above normal body temp • Fever = excessive heat in the body • Heat stroke = body temp above 105

  27. Vital Statistics • Pulse • Heart Rate • Why heart rate changes: • Anxiety • Exercise • Pain • Disease • Shock

  28. Vital statistics • How to measure pulse rate: • Using index and middle finger, gently feel over the artery until you feel the pulse • Count number of pulses in 15 seconds • Multiply by 4 to get beats/minute

  29. Vital statistics • Pulse Sites:

  30. Vital statistics • Respiration • Number of breaths per minute (inhale and exhale = 1 breath) • Why respiratory rate changes: • Anxiety • Exercise • Pain • Disease • Shock

  31. Vital statistics • How to measure respiration • Observe the rise and fall of chest • Count number of breaths for 15 seconds • Multiply by 4 to get breaths/minute

  32. Vital Statistics Average TPR’s