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Chapter 17, Section 3: Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal PowerPoint Presentation
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Chapter 17, Section 3: Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal

Chapter 17, Section 3: Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal

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Chapter 17, Section 3: Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal

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  1. Chapter 17, Section 3: Teddy Roosevelt’s Square Deal Objectives: • To trace the events of Theodore Roosevelt’s presidency • To show how Roosevelt used the power of his office to regulate business • To identify laws passed to protect citizens’ health and preserve the environment • To summarize Roosevelt’s stand on civil rights

  2. Roosevelt’s Childhood • Born into a very wealthy New York family • Had asthma & was a frail child, often sick • Drove himself to accomplish physical feats • Mastered marksmanship & horseback riding • Went to Harvard University where he boxed & wrestled • Very ambitious & entered the life of politics

  3. Theodore Roosevelt • Was the Mayor of New York • Was Police Commissioner of New York • Was Assistant Secretary of U.S. Navy • Was Governor of New York • Became McKinley’s VP running mate • Eventually became President after McKinley was assassinated

  4. Theodore Roosevelt • Did things his way & the political bosses could not control him • They thought it would better to get him out of the governor’s position so they would be able to run their political machines • Hatched a plot to “kick Roosevelt upstairs where he could do no harm”, and nominated Roosevelt as McKinley’s Vice President in 1900 • Republican’s realized Roosevelt was one breath away from becoming the most powerful person in the government

  5. Theodore Roosevelt as President • Became president in 1901 • While president he boxed with professional, one of whom blinded him in his left eye • Rode 100 miles on horseback just because he could • Went on bear hunts & was said to have sparred with a bear cub: a toymaker marketed a new product called the Teddy Bear • Was bold, had a dynamic personality & was hugely popular which helped him advance his programs

  6. Roosevelt’s Thinking • He thought it was the responsibility of the federal government for our nation’s welfare • Thought government should assume control whenever states proved incapable of dealing with problems • “The President is the steward of the people and can assume he has legal right to do whatever the needs of the people demand.”

  7. Theodore’s Roosevelt’s Square Deal • Roosevelt would see to it that the common people received what he called a Square Deal • This term was used to describe the various progressive reforms in the Roosevelt administration • Roosevelt believed that modern America required a powerful federal government • If big business victimized workers it was the Federal government’s job to intervene

  8. Roosevelt & the 1902 Coal Strike • 140,000 coal miners in Pennsylvania went on strike • Wanted a 20% pay raise, 9 hour work day, & right to organize a union • Mine operators refused to bargain or even meet with them • George Baer brought religion into it and said he felt a religious duty to defeat the strikers – Pres. Roosevelt thought he was an idiot • Roosevelt gets them to use a federal arbitration committee to help settle the disagreement • Workers received a 10% pay raise, 9 hour work day, but forfeited all of the workers belonging to the union, & could not strike for 3 yrs

  9. Federal Arbitration: A New Principle • From then on when a strike threatened the public welfare, the federal government could intervene

  10. Trust Busting • Good trusts = had a conscience • Bad trusts = greedily abused the public • Did not want to destroy the trust because that would destroy the national economy • Pres. T. Roosevelt filed 44 anti-trust suits against companies who established monopolies • His goal was to gain federal regulation over companies

  11. Railroad Regulation • Interstate Commerce Act – prohibited the setting up of “pools” in which wealthy rail owners divided up the business in a given area & shared the profits • ICC – set up to enforce the above law, but had little power of railroad owners • Elkins Act of 1903 – made it illegal for rail official & shippers to give or receive rebates And once a railroad had set it’s rate, it could not change it. • Hepburn Act: limited distribution of free railroad passes • All helped the government gain power in regulating the railroads

  12. Protecting Citizens & the Environment • Promoted laws to protect citizens from unsafe food & drugs, and the environment from pollution • Thought compromise was the key to benefit public heath & the environment

  13. Protecting Health • Roosevelt read The Jungle by Upton Sinclair & knew he needed to make a change • Appointed a commission of experts to report on the accuracy of Sinclair’s description • The commission backed Sinclair’s reports • Roosevelt passed The Meat Inspection Act in 1906 – it dictated strict cleanliness requirements • This act supported the progressive principle of government regulation • Negative side of this act: government paid for the inspections & companies did not have to label their canned goods with date of processing info

  14. Pure Food & Drug Act • Pure Food & Drug Act was passed in 1906 – it halted the sale of contaminated foods or medicines and called for truth in labeling • Before passage of this law, manufacturers advertised that their products accomplished everything form curing cancer to growing hair, children’s medicine sometimes contained opium, cocaine & alcohol

  15. Conservation & Natural Resources • Americans had shortsightedly exploited their natural environment: leveled forests, plowed up prairies, cattle overgrazed, coal companies cluttered the land with coal dumps, untreated sewage & industrial waste was being dumped into rivers • Roosevelt said, “Our resources are not endless!” • He banned Christmas trees in the White House • Set aside 1.5 million acres of water-powered sites & another 80 million acres for U.S. Geological experts to explore for minerals & water resources • He established over 50 wildlife sanctuaries & several national parks

  16. Conservation & Natural Resources cont… • Roosevelt hired Gifford Pinchot as head of the U.S. Forest Service • Together they established The Newlands Act; money from the sale of public lands in the West funded large-scale irrigation projects • This act established that the federal government would manage the precious water sources in the West

  17. Roosevelt & Civil Rights • Father was a northerner, mother was a southerner • Was not a supporter of civil rights for African Americans • However did support a few individual African Americans • Appointed an African American as head of the Charleston, SC courthouse • Met with Booker T. Washington • Roosevelt did little to advance the goal of racial equality for blacks

  18. Homework • Complete questions 3 & 4 on page 511 • Complete the geography skills builder question using the map on page 509 • Due Tomorrow!!!

  19. President William Howard Taft Objectives • To summarize the Taft presidency • To trace the division in the Republican party • To describe the election of 1912

  20. William Howard Taft • President from 1909-1913, Republican Party • Only President to be a Chief Justice on the Supreme Court • Largest President at 6’4” and 325lbs • First President to own a car, throw the 1st pitch on opening day of the baseball season, play golf • First President whose funeral was broadcast on radio • A good friend of Teddy Roosevelt – hand picked by Roosevelt to be his successor

  21. William Taft cont… • Was a judge in Ohio, a judge on the U.S. Court of Appeals, a lawyer, & a law professor at Cincinnati Law School • Married to Helen “Nellie” Herron who was very ambitious and wanted to be First Lady • Hated campaigning • He was a cautious president

  22. The Payne-Aldrich Tariff • Taft campaigned on a platform of lowering tariffs – a staple of the Progressive agenda • Introduced the Payne-Aldrich bill which would lower rates on many manufactured goods • The Senate changed the bill to only lowering rates on hides, birdseed & sea moss • Instead of vetoing the bill, Taft passes it • Many of his progressive supporters are outraged • Addressed the people in a speech & made it worse

  23. Disputing Public Lands • Appointed Richard Ballinger (a wealthy Seattle lawyer) as Secretary of the Interior • Richard Ballinger disapproved of conservationist controls on western lands • He removed 1 million acres of forest and mining lands from the reserved list • Approved the sale of millions of acres of coal rich land in Alaska to Seattle businesses- they then sold it to New York businesses including J.P. Morgan • Again, Taft’s supporters were outraged

  24. Disputing Public Lands cont… • There was a congressional hearing regarding Ballinger’s actions and Gifford Pinchot (head of U.S. Forest Service) testified against him • Trying to protect his administration (Ballinger) Taft fires Gifford Pinchot • Again, his supporters are outraged • The Republican Party starts to split

  25. The Republican Party Splits • Taft’s cautious nature makes it impossible for him to hold together the two wings of the republican Party • Progressives: sought change • Conservatives: did not want change – keep the status quo • Split over Taft’s support of political boss Joseph Cannon who was also Speaker of the House of Representatives

  26. Republican Party Splits over Joe Cannon • Joe “Uncle Joe” Cannon was a poker playing, rough talking, tobacco chewing politician. • Disregarded seniority when filling committee positions • Anointed himself head of the Committee of Rules which decided the bills Congress would consider • Basically had a dictatorship & often ignored Progressive bills • Reform minded Republicans with the help of Democrats strip Cannon of his power

  27. Republican Party Splits • They have a midterm election where everyone gets to vote for a new house leader & Committee on Rules • Republican is divided between the Progressives and Conservatives: they’re upset over cost of living, high tariffs, and the conservatives think Taft is against conservation • The Republicans lose in the House elections and the Democrats take control of the House of Representatives for the first time in 18 years

  28. Bull Moose Party • Roosevelt has been in Africa shooting big game • When he returns people are calling for him to return to office as President • He removes his support of Taft and their friendship ends as well • Roosevelt declares he is running for President for a third term • Roosevelt gives a rousing speech declaring the country needed a “New Nationalism” where the federal government would extend its power for the “welfare of the people”

  29. Bull Moose Party: Republican Convention • At the Republican Convention the Republicans refuse to seat Roosevelt delegates • Re-nominated Taft on the Republican ballot • Roosevelt holds his own convention in August & forms a third party: the Progressive Party • The Progressive Party nominates Roosevelt on for president on their ballot • The Progressive party becomes known as the Bull Moose Party due to Roosevelt declaring he was “strong as a bull moose”

  30. Bull Moose Party: Their Platform • Direct election of senators • Advocated women’s suffrage • Workmen’s compensation • An 8 hour workday • Minimum wage for women • Child labor laws • Federal regulation of business

  31. Woodrow Wilson • 28th President from 1913-1921 • President for 2 terms • 56 years old at time of Presidency • Professor & President of Princeton University • Governor of New Jersey from 1911-1913 • Only President to have a Ph.D. • No military experience • Won the Nobel Peace Prize in 1920 • Married twice: Ellen & Edith

  32. Woodrow Wilson: Major Events in Office • Seventeenth Amendment ratified calling for direct election of Senators (1913) • Federal Reserve Act (1913) • Clayton Anti-Trust Act (1914) • World War I (1914-1918) • Lusitania Sunk (1915) • United States entered World War I by declaring war on Germany (1917) • Treaty of Versailles (1919) • Eighteenth Amendment ratified prohibiting alcoholic beverages (1919) • Nineteenth Amendment ratified giving women the right to vote (1920)

  33. Wilson’s New Freedom • Had Progressive ideals • Thought that trusts should be broken up (Roosevelt thought that trusts should be regulated) • Thought businesses should be made smaller, not that government should get bigger • Wanted to give greater freedom to average citizens • He called his program the New Freedom & planned his attack on trusts, tariffs & high finance

  34. Clayton Anti-Trust Act • Sought to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890 • It declared certain business practices illegal: companies could no longer acquire stocks of another corporation if it led to a monopoly • The Clayton Act specified that labor unions & farm organizations would no longer be subject to antitrust laws-could strike, boycott & picket now

  35. Federal Trade Commission • Was a watchdog agency that had the power to investigate corporations • Put an end to unfair business competition & unfair business practices • Could force a company to “cease and desist” • FTC handed out over 400 cease and desist orders

  36. A New Tax System under Wilson Underwood Tariff of 1913 • Reduced tariff rates • Rates dropped from 40% to 30% • Had to find a way to replace the revenue from the decrease in tariffs Federal Income Tax – 16th Amendment • Taxed profits and earnings • Taxed larger incomes at a higher rate than smaller incomes • By 1917 the government received more money than any tariff • Today income tax is the federal government’s main source of revenue

  37. Federal Reserve System • Wilson thought the nation needed a way to make credit more easily available • Wanted a way to quickly adjust the amount of money in circulation • Both money supply & credit availability had to keep pace with the economy • Wilson established a centralized private banking system under federal control • Federal reserve banks had the power to issue new paper currency in emergency situations • Is the basis of the nation’s banking system