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  2. STATISTICS fromNKUDIC • - 20 million people had impaired kidney function • - 3 million people were told they had kidney disease • - Cause more than 95,000 deaths a year

  3. Why are your kidneys so vital? • - Remove waste products and excess fluids from the body • - Maintain a critical balance of salt, potassium and acid • -Produce a hormone—erythropoietin EPO--that stimulates the production of red blood cells.

  4. - Other kidney hormones help regulate blood pressure and calcium metabolism • - The kidneys even synthesize the hormones that control tissue growth • BE AWARE OF OUR KIDNEY!!!!

  5. - Inherited kidney disorders • - Congenital kidney diseases • - Acquired kidney diseases

  6. Inherited kidney disorders polycystic kidney disease (PKD) • genetic disorder marked by the growth of numerous cysts in the kidneys • These PKD cysts compress functioning kidney tissue, eventually replace much of the mass of the kidneys

  7. Medical professionals describe two major inherited forms of PKD: • Autosomal Dominant PKD • Autosomal Recessive PKD

  8. Autosomal Dominant PKD • -"Autosomal dominant" means that if one parent has the disease, there is a 50-percent chance that the disease will pass to a child • - Many people with autosomal dominant PKD live for decades without developing symptoms. • -The disease is thought to occur equally in men and women and equally in people of all races

  9. What are the symptoms? People with autosomal dominant PKD can experience the following: • urinary tract infections • hematuria (blood in the urine) • liver and pancreatic cysts • abnormal heart valves • high blood pressure

  10. How is it diagnosed? • ultrasound imaging • computed tomography (CT scan) and magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) • genetic test

  11. How is it treated? Although a cure for autosomal dominant PKD is not available, treatment can ease the symptoms and prolong life.

  12. Pain • -pain medications, such as aspirin or Tylenol • -surgery to shrink cysts can relieve pain in the back and flanks Urinary tract infections • -antibiotics

  13. Auotsomal Recessive PKD • Only one parent carries the abnormal gene, the baby cannot get the disease • The symptoms of autosomal recessive PKD can begin before birth

  14. How is it diagnosed? • Ultrasound imaging of the fetus or newborn baby • Ultrasound examination of kidneys of relatives (e.g. father)

  15. What are the symptoms ? Children with autosomal recessive PKD experience the following: • -high blood pressure • -urinary tract infections • -frequent urination.

  16. How is it treated? • -Medicines can control high blood pressure in autosomal recessive PKD • -Antibiotics can control urinary tract infections.

  17. -Eating increased amounts of nutritious food improves growth in children with autosomal recessive PKD. • -growth hormones are used • -dialysis or transplantation

  18. Congenital kidney diseases There are two types of congenital kidney diseases. 1) Muscles of the bladder fail to contract

  19. 2) Malformations present at birth blockage  Disrupts the normal flow of urine  Causing it to back up Exert increasing pressure on the kidneys Permanent damage of kidney!!

  20. How is it diagnosed? - Early diagnosis: injecting dye into the bloodstream & taking X-ray -Specific diagnostic procedures: intravenous urography & retrograde pyelography -Non-invasive diagnostic techniques: renal scans, ultrasound, and CT scans

  21. Acquired kidney diseases • 1)      Nephrotic Syndrome • Though not a disease in itself, this condition is often the result of other kidney disorders or more generalized diseases

  22. 1) Kidney Stones • Hard masses appear when certain chemicals in the urine form crystals that stick together • The crystals can grow into a stone as small as a grain of sand or as large as a golf ball. • Small stones are passed out of the body with the urine. • The larger ones can block urine flow or irritate the lining of the urinary tract

  23. 2)Chronic glomerulonephrit • a term used for a wide variety of diseases that cause progressive scarring of the kidneys over a long period of time, often without any initial symptoms.

  24. 3)Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis • More common in children • Most people recover fully ,but the few who don't may develop chronic kidney failure within months.

  25. 4)Rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis (RPGN) • a decrease in urine output and progressive decline in kidney function • appears suddenly, and can quickly lead to kidney failure

  26. Treatment of Kidney Failure • hemodialysis: an artificial kidney machine carries out the vital functions the kidneys can no longer perform • peritoneal dialysis: waste products from the blood are flushed from the body with fluid instilled and drained through a catheter • Kidney transplantation