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Terrorism

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Terrorism

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  1. Terrorism

  2. What is Terrorism? • No accepted definition. • Dictionary: the use of force or threats to demoralize, intimidate and subjugate, especially as a political weapon • Civilians as victims only • innocent civilians in Israel and US do not exist-Bin Laden • Tactic • Goals vary by group

  3. Methods of Terrorism • Firearms • Explosive and Incendiary Devices • Chemical Agents • Biological Agents • Nuclear Weapon

  4. Chemical Agents • Chemical agents kill or incapacitate people, destroy livestock or ravage crops • Some agents are odorless and tasteless • They can have an immediate or a delayed effect

  5. Biological terrorism • Dispersal of microbes or their toxins to produce illness, death and terror • The paths of infection can be contaminated water, food, air and packages. • Microbes • Bacteria • Viruses • Toxins

  6. Is this something new? • 14th Century – Kaffa • City on Crimean Peninsula • Hurled plague infested corpses over walls of city to infest it

  7. Is this something new? • 18th Century French and Indian War • British Officers gave blankets from smallpox victims to Indians aligned with French • Caused an epidemic in tribes • Effective means of incapacitating group

  8. Anatomy of a Bioterrorist Attack Terrorism takes much time and planning Preparation 5 years Execution 1 day Diagnosed case 3 days First Death Multiple deaths

  9. Nuclear Terrorism Spreading of radioactive materials through ventilation system or explosion Disable nuclear reactor cooling system and cause leakage of radioactive materials Detonate a nuclear weapon No use of nuclear material for non-military terrorism has ever occurred

  10. Types of Terrorism • Domestic • International • Religious/Apocalyptic, Political, Social, Environmental, leftist/fundamentalist

  11. Types of Political Terrorism • National Separatist: cultural, ethnic, tribal, religious, racial separation from the larger group, often with demands for independence or autonomy

  12. Religious/ Apocalyptic Terrorism • Killing in the Name of God; Often political undertones. • Al-Qaeda? • Abortion Clinic Bombers • Suicide Bombers? • AumShinrikyo

  13. Environmental Terrorism • Earth Liberation Front: acts of terrorism, violence or sabotage committed in support of ecological, environmental, or animal rights. • Common Tactic: Arson, Robbery, Tree Spiking, bombing • Recent example: Discovery Channel Hostage taking • More common in developed world

  14. Leftist Terrorism • Maoists in Nepal, East India. • Marxists (Shining Path) • Techniques generally include: kidnapping, bombing, guerilla warfare

  15. Perpetrators of Terror • Lone Wolf vs. Sophisticated Group

  16. Why? • Varies substantially depending on group and region • Suggested Theories: • Poverty • Regime Type • Inequality • Revenge • Lack of Education • Religiously Motivated • Anger

  17. Poverty and lack of education? • In international terrorism perpetrators and leaders generally very educated and from a privileged background: 9/11 Hijackers, London Bombers, ‘Underwear bomber’. • Domestic Terrorism: Often poor and uneducated; no other path

  18. Sex and Money? • Lures young men with raging hormones • Promise of Houri’s • Palestinian/Pakistani groups recruit poor children, offer money and heaven.

  19. Revenge • In interviews with Palestinian ‘failed suicide bombers’, almost all reported being upset that family members had been killed or incarcerated by Israelis.

  20. Regime Type • Positive correlation between democracy and terrorism • Why? • Open media • Opportunity • Civil Liberties • Persecution/Rule by Iron Fist in Authoritarian Regimes

  21. Goals • Fear (most Groups i.e Greek Anarchists, ELF/ALF, ) • Media Coverage (Almost all groups) • Martyrdom (National Hero) • As many deaths as possible (new phenomena; Al Qaeda, Shining Path, Tamil Tigers)

  22. Total number of Terrorist Attacks • 87,710 Total Attacks • 44,715(0 victims) • 32,140 (1-10 victims) • 3,613 (11-50 victims) • 288 (51-100 victims) • 112 (101+ victims)

  23. Regions with Most Attacks • South America (17266) • Middle East/North Africa (15346) • Western Europe (14474) • South Asia (13072) • Central America (10539) • Sub-Saharan Africa (5825) • Southeast Asia (4938)

  24. States with most attacks (1970-2007) • Colombia (7004) • Peru (6082) • El Salvador (5347) • India (5178) • Ireland (3975) • Spain (3224) • Pakistan (3209) • Turkey (2776) • Sri Lanka (2498)

  25. States with Deadliest Attacks (Over 100 killed in a single attack) • Nicaragua (12) • El Salvador (10) • Burundi (7) • Sri Lanka (6) • Rwanda (6) • Russia (4) • Nepal (4) • Angola (4) • Ethiopia (3)

  26. Strategic Logic of Terrorism • Main points: • World leader in suicide terrorism is LTTE (Tamil Tigers) • 180 suicide terrorist attacks from 1980-2001 • Why? Because it works; no internment • Most common goal: withdrawal of military forces in land; independence