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Traveling Waves

Traveling Waves. Lecture 34 Friday. December 5. Exam 4 Average = 88.4. Waves. Sound Water Electromagnetic Traveling versus Standing. Waves on a String. Wave on a string-motion perpendicular to string-pulse. t=1.34 s. t=2.05 s. Speed of a wave on a string. Linear mass density.

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Traveling Waves

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  1. Traveling Waves Lecture 34 Friday. December 5

  2. Exam 4 Average = 88.4

  3. Waves • Sound • Water • Electromagnetic • Traveling versus Standing

  4. Waves on a String • Wave on a string-motion perpendicular to string-pulse t=1.34 s t=2.05 s

  5. Speed of a wave on a string • Linear mass density

  6. String • Motion is perpendicular to the string and to the direction the wave is moving. Hence a transverse wave.

  7. Sound • Pressure wave, air particles move back and forth in the direction of propagation—hence a longitudinal wave. • Speed in air at t=200 C = 343 m/s

  8. Graphing a Wave • For a fixed x=x0 we can plot the wave versus time: • A “history” graph, motion at a fixed point as a function of time. y(t) t

  9. Snapshot Graph • For a fixed time, t=t1 y(x) x

  10. Sinusoidal Waves • Any wave can be written as the sum of sinusoidal waves—Fourier • y depends on x and t • In one period t, wave goes through one oscillation

  11. Wave goes through one oscillation if we change x by one wavelength ( a wavelength is the period In space.) Putting these together: For a wave moving to the right, plus x-direction

  12. Moving to the left, –x direction

  13. How many waves pass a point in one second? How long is this train of waves? Thus

  14. Problem 15.13 • The motion detector used in physics lab sends out 40 kHz ultrasonic pulses. A pulse goes out, reflects of the object being measured, and returns to the detector. The lab temperature is 200 C. • A) What is the wavelength? • B) time for a round trip to an object 2.5m away?

  15. Monday • 15: 4-6 Sound and Light • Problems 15: 1, 4, 7, 13, 15, ,17, 18

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