Universal DesignDesign Empathy Dr. Hsing Mei Web Computing Laboratory Computer Science and Information Engineering Department Fu Jen Catholic University 11/13/2012
Design • Design • Universal Design • Design Empathy
Basic Design • Design • Visual Design • Interface/Workflow Design • User Experience (UX) • 4DDesign Flow • 發現(Discover) : How? Why? • 定義(Define) • 發展(Develop):Interdisciplinary Brainstorming • 傳遞(Deliver)
Universal Design • Universal Design in Architecture and Physical Environments – design of structures that anticipates the needs of individuals with disabilities and accommodates these needs from the outset
Universal Design - History American National Standards Institute (ANSI) 1961: Specifications for Making Buildings and Facilities Accessible to and Usable by people with physical disabilities Uniform Federal Accessibility Standard (UFAS) Adapted ANSI standard for federally funded construction Fair Housing Amendment 1988: Access guidelines to multiple housing units Americans with Disabilities Act 1990: Mandatory conditions for public spaces
Assistive Technology • Assistive technology device is defined as “any item, piece of equipment, or product system, whether acquired commercially off-the-shelf, modified or customized, that is used to increase, maintain, or improve functional capabilities of individuals with disabilities.” – Assistive Technology Act of 1998
Universal Design Architectural Principles • Equitable Use • Flexibility in Use • Simple and Intuitive Use • Perceptible Information • Tolerance for Error • Low Physical Effort • Size and Space for Approach and Use
通用設計 7 原則 1. 公平使用：這種設計對任何使用者都不會造成傷害或使其受窘 2. 彈性使用：這種設計涵蓋了廣泛的個人喜好及能力。 3. 簡易及直覺使用：不論使用者的經驗、知識、語言能力或集中力如何，這種設計的使用都很容易了解。 4. 明顯的資訊：不論周圍狀況或使用著感官能力如何，這種設計有效地對使用者傳達了必要的資訊。 5. 容許錯誤：這種設計將危險及因意外或不經意的動作所導致的不利後果降至最低。 6. 省力：這種設計可以有效、舒適及不費力地使用。 7. 適當的尺寸及空間供使用：不論使用者體型、姿勢或移動性如何，這種設計提供了適當的大小及空間供操作及使用。
通用設計 3 附則 1. 可長久使用，具經濟性 2. 品質優良且美觀 3. 對人體及環境無害
Equitable Use The design is useful and marketable to people with diverse abilities Provide the same means of use for all users: identical whenever possible; equivalent when not. Avoid segregating or stigmatizing any users. Provisions for privacy, security, and safety should be equally available to all users. Make the design appealing to all users.
Flexibility in Use The design accommodates a wide range of individual preference and abilities. Provide choice in methods of use. Accommodate right- or left-handed access and use. Facilitate the user's accuracy and precision. Provide adaptability to the user's pace.
Simple and Intuitive Use Use of the design is easy to understand, regardless of the user's experience, knowledge, language skills, or current concentration level. Eliminate unnecessary complexity. Be consistent with user expectations and intuition. Accommodate a wide range of literacy and language skills. Arrange information consistent with its importance. Provide effective prompting and feedback during and after task completion.
Perceptible Information The design communicates necessary information effectively to the user, regardless of ambient conditions or the user's sensory abilities. Use different modes (pictorial, verbal, tactile) for redundant presentation of essential information. Provide adequate contrast between essential information and its surroundings. Maximize "legibility" of essential information. Differentiate elements in ways that can be described (i.e., make it easy to give instructions or directions). Provide compatibility with a variety of techniques or devices used by people with sensory limitations.
Tolerance for Error The design minimizes hazards and the adverse consequences of accidental or unintended actions. Arrange elements to minimize hazards and errors: most used elements, most accessible; hazardous elements eliminated, isolated, or shielded. Provide warnings of hazards and errors. Provide fail safe features. Discourage unconscious action in tasks that require vigilance.
Low Physical Effort The design can be used efficiently and comfortably and with a minimum of fatigue. Allow user to maintain a neutral body position. Use reasonable operating forces. Minimize repetitive actions. Minimize sustained physical effort
Size and Space for Approach and Use Appropriate size and space is provided for approach, reach, manipulation, and use regardless of user's body size, posture, or mobility. Provide a clear line of sight to important elements for any seated or standing user. Make reach to all components comfortable for any seated or standing user. Accommodate variations in hand and grip size. Provide adequate space for the use of assistive devices or personal assistance.
Universal Design • Universal Design for Learning – design curricula with the needs of all learners in mind, so that, methods, materials and assessments are usable by all.
The Application of “Design Empathy” through “Contextual Inquiry” to “Orange Beneficence” Prof (Dr.) YEN ChingChiuan 顏慶全 Division of Industrial Design National University of Singapore
Good Design Human Needs Emerging Technology Social Trends “To create meaningful innovations, you need to know your users and care about their lives.”
Why never to ask favors from designers Empathizing
Empathizing • Empathy is the foundation of a human-centered design process. To empathize, you: • Observe. View users and their behavior in the context of their lives. • Engage. Interact with and interview users through both scheduled and short ‘intercept’ encounters. • Immerse. Experience what your user experiences.
Empathy Map THINK SAY FEEL DO Identify needs / insights
Empathize Contextual Inquiry. go for stories. everyone should capture notes. Take pictures. do not rely on memory.
Phenomenology(現象學) 避免視而不見, 聽而不聞 Grass Anthropology(人類學)