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25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention

25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention

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25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention

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  1. 25 Techniques of Situational Crime Prevention Ronald V. Clarke Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey Problem-Oriented Policing Conference Charlotte, October 28-30, 2004

  2. This presentation • Explain Situational Prevention (SCP) • Compare POP and SCP • Development of 25 techniques • Show 25 techniques on Popcenter website

  3. Crime Prevention Intervening in the causal chain to prevent crime occurring

  4. Two ways to prevent crime Change people’s criminal motivations Reduce opportunities for crime

  5. Situational crime prevention (SCP) Art and science of reducing opportunities for crime Based on new crime theories: Rational choice Routine activity Crime pattern

  6. Focus of New Crime Theories • Crime not criminality • Events not dispositions • Near not distant causes • How? not Why? • Situational and opportunity factors

  7. POP and SCPSIMILARITIES • Both preventive approaches • Originated about same time (U.K./U.S.A.) • Both focus on highly specific problems • Both use action research model

  8. POP Scanning Analysis Response Assessment SCP Data collection Analysis of problem Choice of solution Implementation Evaluation Actionresearch

  9. POP vs. SCPDIFFERENCES

  10. POP and SCPCONVERGENCE • Scholars intermingling • Literatures converging • Popcenter website contains much SCP material • POP Guides make use of 25 techniques

  11. 25 techniques 5 main mechanisms: • Increase the Effort • Increase the Risks • Reduce the Rewards • Reduce Provocations • Remove Excuses 5 techniques for each (Handout)

  12. 25 techniques (Continued) Why do we need this classification: • Systematize knowledge • Stimulus for research • Practical guide – have you considered these?

  13. Why 25 techniques? Grew from 8, 12, 16 to 25: • Developments in theory: • Originally rational choice /routine activity • Neutralization theory (Matza) • Social Psychology (Wortley) • New preventive ideas • New technology

  14. Limitations Not all techniques equally suitable for all crimes: • Remove excuses best for “everyday” crimes • Reduce provocations best for closed environments

  15. Limitations (2) Techniques overlap - Increasing effort can increase risk Some preventive measures can serve more than one purpose Bestusedto help thinkingat Response

  16. Clean Cars on NYC Subway (Reduce rewards)

  17. CCTV Installed in 1985 at University parking lots(Increase risks) CRIMES