Events and Occurrents Tutorial: International Conference on Biomedical Ontology 2009 By Randall R. Dipert www.dipert.org
Events and Occurrents Topics: Session 1 • Importance of Events and My Approach to Ontology • Events and Occurrents in applied ontologies: SUMO (IEEE), Process Specification Language (PSL ISO), DOLCE, UCore 2.0 and UCoreSL, and BFO ( ISO?) • Defining Event and Occurrent • Kinds of Occurrent Session 2 Slide 45 • Mental events • Acts • Quasi-continuants: forest fires and hurricanes 8. The Relationship of Events to Continuants
1.1 Importance of Events and Occurrents: Terms Event Occurrent (NCOR’s BFO: Basic Formal Ontology) Processual entity (BFO) Process (BFO) Perdurant
1.2 Importance of Events and Occurrents Importance of events: • biomedical events :disease or malfunction, micro- and macro-events • ethics, law • psychology: mental events • engineering: making, modifying, destroying entities • military (engagement, battle, campaign, war) • Causal statements in all sciences: Event1 causes Event2 • Everyday language
1.3 Approach to Ontology • Personal History Logic Diagrammatic notations in logic Logic and Ontology of Relations Non-Standard Logics Theorem-proving/inference engines Common Logic/CLIF Ontology Artifacts, Actions Foundations of ontology Military ontology (and Military Ethics & game theory)--Command and Control Project for the U.S. Army
1.4 Approach to Ontology • Personal History Logic Ontology • Conception of Ontology Formal ontology (more logic, less mereology) Realism: Focus on concrete entities (entities with spatial/temporal attributes) Structures and Arrangements Applied Ontology: theoretical and working commitment to Basic Formal Ontology (BFO)
2.1.0 Survey of Selected Ontologies and the Place of Events in Them
2.1.2 SUMO Hierarchy • - entity • - physical • + object • + self connected object • + region • + collection • + agent • - process • + dual object process • - intentional process + motion • + internal change • * shape change • + abstract http://virtual.cvut.cz/kifb/en/toc/65.html accessed 11 JUNE 20009
2.1.3 SUMO Hierarchy(Detail under “Process”: Dual object Process) - entity - physical + object - process + dual object process substitutingtransactioncomparingattachingdetachingcombiningseparating - intentional process + motion + internal change * shape change + abstract http://virtual.cvut.cz/kifb/en/toc/65.html accessed 11 JUNE 20009
2.1.4 SUMO Hierarchy(Detail under “Process”: Intentional Process) intentional process + intentional psychological process + recreation or exercise + organizational process + guiding + keeping * maintaining + repairing + poking + content development - making * constructing - manufacture * publication * cooking + searching + social interaction * maneuver
2.2.2 DOLCE http://wonderweb.semanticweb.org/deliverables/documents/D18.pdf
2.2.3 DOLCE http://wonderweb.semanticweb.org/deliverables/documents/D18.pdf
2.3.3 UCore 2.0 UCore 2.0 Taxonomy using Owl Extractor (VB) on UCoreOwl.owl Thing Entity Cargo CollectionOfThings CyberAgent Document… Event A thing that happens or takes place. [Verbatim from Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th Edition, 2008]
2.3.4 UCore 2.0Taxonomy for Event (excerpt 1) UCore 2.0 Taxonomy using Owl Extractor (VB) on UCoreOwl.owl Event AlertEvent CriminalEvent CommunicationEvent An event by which information is exchanged between parties. [Derived from Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th Edition, 2008] CyberSpaceEvent An event that occurs on a computer or within a computer network. [Derived from Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th Edition, 2008] EconomicEvent An event relating to, or based on the production, distribution, and consumption of goods and services …
2.3.5 UCore 2.0Taxonomy for Event (excerpt 2) Event ExerciseEvent A maneuver or simulated operation involving planning, preparation, and execution carried out for the purpose of training and evaluation. [Derived from JCS Joint Publication 1-02, DOD Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms.] MilitaryEvent An event relating to the activities of armed forces. [Derived from Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th Edition, 2008] PoliticalEvent An event relating to the government or public affairs of a country. [Derived from Concise Oxford English Dictionary, 11th Edition, 2008] TerroristEvent An event relating to a person, organization, or other groups of people who use violence and intimidation in the pursuit of political aims. …
2.3.6 UCore 2.0Relations (Excerpt) Controls have control or command of. AgentEntityRelationshipType InvolvedIn Oxford (derived): to experience or participate in an activity or situation. AgentEventRelationshipType CauseOf Oxford: be the cause of; make happen. CauseOfRelationshipType [RRD: EventEvent?] LocatedAtEntity [RRD ?]LocationExtendedRelationshipTypeOccursAt Oxford (derived): happen; take place at. OR exist or be found to be present at a location. EventLocationRelationshipTypeDistinctFrom Oxford: recognizably different or individual. ThingThingRelationshipType SameAs ThingThingRelationshipType AffiliatedWith Oxford (derived): attached or connected with. closely associated with. ThingThingRelationshipType…
2.5.1 BFO (Basic Formal Ontology) “The great divide BFO recognizes a basic distinction between two kinds of entities: substantial entities or continuants, and processual entities or occurrents.” From A. Spear et al., BFO Manual (2006)
2.5.2 Common Upper OntologyFrom: Basic Formal Ontology (BFO 1.0 2006)Continuant only
2.5.3.i BFO 2.0 continuant independent continuant material entity object fiat object part object aggregate object boundary site dependent continuant generically dependent continuant specifically dependent continuant quality realizable entity role disposition capability function +spatial region …
2.5.3.ii BFO 2.0 occurrent processual entity process process boundary process aggregate fiat process part processual context, deprecated +spatiotemporal region … +temporal region …
ummary Table 2.5.4 RelationsFrom: OBO FoundryRelation Ontology (RO) is_a EntityEntity part_of “ integral_part_of “ proper_part_of “ located_in “ contained_in “ adjacent_to “ transformation_of derives_from preceded_by OccurrentOccurrent has_participant EventContinuant has_agent EventContinuant instance_of InstanceKind
2.6.1 Mapping the Layers of a Command and Control (C2) Ontology Entities UPPER Continuants (CUO) Occurrents MIDDLE human being weapongovernment portion of food military organizationvehicle War sound Hurricane IntentionA Command LOWER A Marine (Type) My M14 (P) The U.S. (Particular) Sandwich (T) BCT (T) Ford Focus, HMMWV (T) (T) = Type (P) = Particular War with rifles (T) Sound of M2 (T) WW II (P) Intention toKatrina (P) parachute (T) An ROE (T) My intention now not Captain Mullan’s to parachute (P) Ship’s Order 16 AUG 1945 CL53/A3 1(2)
3.1 Defining “Events” Inadequate: Entities that occur or happen.
3.2 Defining “Continuants” Entities that exist, or can exist, through time. x is_a Continuant iff a. x is an Independent_Entity b. It is possible that: x exists at time t1 [temporally_located_at], x exists at time t2, and t1 and t2 are non-overlapping time intervals or time instants
3.3 A Definition of Event x is an Event [Event: event-like entity] iff There exists a temporal proper_part of x, OR x could have a temporal part, OR x necessarily occupies a temporal instant
3.4.1 The Ontology of modal notions Modal notions (possibility, necessity) ineliminable? • There exist alternative possible worlds: David Lewis’ Modal Realism. But: Ontologically unpalatable. • There exists an entity, y, such that y is the same narrow natural kind as x, and y has temporal proper parts.
3.4.2 Applying the Modal Definition Applied There exists an entity, y, such that y is the same narrow natural kind as x, and y has temporal proper parts. Consider the event: the fastest Dipert ever ran (assume there is just one). We would naturally say that this occurred or happened, so it appears to be an event.
3.4.3 Applying the Modal Definition Now consider the fact that: Dipert ran his fastest for only for one, absolute time-instant. Therefore this event has no temporally proper parts. But: There are other human beings like Dipert who have or will run their fastest for more than one instant. Dipert walked (skipped, fell,…) his fastest for more than one instant. The activities of skipping, falling, … are of the relevantly same kind as running. Or more informally: “It’s possible that Dipert drops dead in the next instance.” is true because: Implicit Reference Class= Human beings AND some one of these will drop dead in the next minute.
4.1 The BFO is_a hierarchy for Event Entity Occurrent Event-like Entity (BFO: Processual Entity) Bona fide Event (BFO: Process) Event Aggregate (BFO: Process Aggregate) Event Boundary (BFO: Process Boundary)
4.2.1 Ontological Classifications of Events Are there other ontological subkinds of event? I. Time instant, time interval distinction produces: Instantaneous event Ongoing event This dichotomy is what might be called a: BFO-implied Event-Type It is derived from BFO distinctions in other parts of the is_a hierarchy. They are OWL restrictions, but are not parts of a proper is_a hierarchy, and hence not true kinds
4.2.2 Ontological Divisions among Event Are there other ontological kinds of event? • BFO-implied Event-Type (cont.) Time instant, time interval distinction Instantaneous event Ongoing event Absolutely and at a level of granularity At one level of granularity, the beat of Dipert’s heart at 12 am Yesterday is instantaneous; at another it is on-going (the period of increase of blood pressure above diatolic level, the peak sysstolic blood pressure, the period of decrease. At one level of granularity my step at some particular time (as part of walking) is instantaneous, at another not.
4.2.3 Ontological Divisions among Event Are there other ontological kinds of event? • Other BFO-implied Event-Type distinctions: (cont.) Change in a fiat-object part Change in an object Coming into being of independent continuant, etc.
4.3 Ontological Divisions among Event II. Repeated, vs. simple, continuous (non-repeated) events III. Bona fide unified event aggregates: digestion, life processes. Proper processes. Sequences of repeated events of different event-kinds Spatially separated events or event-sequences (cognitive nervous system activity and digestive activity, both part of life-process bona fide event aggregate). Problem: geological, stellar processes
4.4 Ontological Divisions among Event • Active events (changes among continuants or of relations among them) vs. states DOLCE: active (events) vs stative perdurants • Activities vs non-activities Activity: aggregate of events with the same major participant (object or bona fide object aggregate) My running. My intentionally changing bodily location. Human activity, criminal activity.
4.5 Ontological Divisions among Event VI. Distinctions among change-events i. Going out of existence of one or more continuant ii. Coming into existence of one or more continuant iii. Change in one or more inherent attributes: Quality Realizable Role Disposition Capability Function [Can be treated as (i) or (ii)] iv. Change in location, velocity, acceleration,…
4.6 Process Description Language (PSL) There are four primitive classes, two primitive functions, and three primitive relations in the ontology of PSL Core. The classes are OBJECT, ACTIVITY, ACTIVITY_OCCURRENCE and TIMEPOINT. The four relations are PARTICIPATES-IN, BEFORE, and OCCURRENCE-OF. The two functions are BEGINOF, and ENDOF. ACTIVITIES, ACTIVITY_OCCURRENCES, TIMEPOINTs (or "POINT”s, for short), and OBJECTs are known collectively as entities, or things. These classes are all pairwise disjointed.
4.7 Process Description Language (PSL) Kind Informal Definition Achievement An achievement is an activity whose effects achieve the preconditions for some other activity. Repairable- A repairable fluent is a fluent such that, fluent whenever the fluent does not hold, there exists an activity-occurrence that causes the fluent to hold again. … 4.10.2 Relations In the Reasoning about States Extension (from PSL 1.0)
Day 2 Events and Occurrents Topics: Session 1 • Importance of Events and Approach to Ontology • Events and Occurrents in applied ontologies: SUMO (IEEE), Process Specification Language (PSL), DOLCE, UCore 2.0 and UCoreSL, and BFO ( ISO?) • Defining Event and Occurrent • Kinds of Occurrent Session 2 5.0 Stating Neil Williams’ analyses of dispositions (from Day PM) in BFO • Mental events • Acts • Quasi-continuants: forest fires and hurricanes 8. The Relationship of Events to Continuants
5.1 Relations in an Ontology An applied ontology: Upper Level; basic, formal ontology • is_a hierarchy of basic ontological kinds • Basic ontological relations Kinds have instances, and relations hold for some particulars in every non-trivial (non-empty) world. • Non-ontological kinds (red, human being) • Non-ontological relations (gravitational attraction, has_institutional_power_over) • Truths about particulars.
5.01 Two Kinds of BFO-ized Dispositions Auto-dispositions: Disposition d1 that inheres in Continuant c1 brings about (in certain circumstances) an Event e1 such that c1 participates_in e1 Examples: fragility of glass brings about the breaking of the glass; solubility of salt brings about the dissolving of salt in a solvent-fluid. Alter-dispositions: Disposition d1 that inheres in Continuant c1 brings about (in certain circumstances) an Event e1 such that Continuant c2 (c2≠c1) participates_in e1 and c1 does not. Examples: x scratches y, x gravitationally attracts y.
5.02 Correlative (“Reciprocal”)Dispositions in BFO Iff ContinuantType C1 [salt] dissolves in ContinuantType C2 [water] Then ContinuantType C2 [water] is a solvent for ContinuantType C1 [salt]. Iff ContinuantType C1 [diamond] scratches ContinuantType C2 [glass] Then ContinuantType C2 [glass] is scratchable by ContinuantType C1 [diamond] Cf. The Moh Scale of scratchability
5.02 BFO-izing Dispositions The harmless part of the Simple Conditional Analysis of Dispositions: Axiom If Disposition d1 to EventKind E1 at TimeKind/Region T1 inheres_in Continuant c1 at Time (Interval | Instant) t1 then for all ProcessualContexts ?p1 [:d1] if c1 is_in_context ?p1 [:d1] at t1 then there exists a time ?t2 and Event ?e1 such that ?e1 is temporally_located_at ?t2, ?e1 is_instance_of E1 and ?t2 part_of T1
5.2 Relations in an Event Ontology Candidate Relations for events: • All relations that hold for all entities: part_of, overlaps, located_at,… Distinctive: • Continuant participates_in Event • EventKind1=Coming into being of continuant including dependent ones (e.g., addition of a quality or disposition) • EventKind2=Going out of being of continuant including dependent ones • EventKind3=Changes of a continuant’s location, velocity, ….