Plate Tectonics The theory of ______ ________ states that the earth’s surface is composed of slow moving plates that move due to forces deep within the earth.
The movement of plates explains the location of many___________, volcanoes and mountain ranges. earthquakes
During the process of _______________, rocks are broken down by air, ice, water, chemicals, and living things. weathering
During the process of ____________, weathered rocks are moved by water, wind, and ice erosion
During the process of ___________, eroded materials are deposited in locations such as rivers, valleys, deltas, and beaches. deposition
Rock Cycle The ________ _______ is the continuous changing of rocks on the earth.
Igneous _______________rock is formed by the cooling of melted rock.
Sedimentary ___________ rock is formed by the pressing and cementing of layers of sediments.
Metamorphic ________________rock is formed by the application of heat and/or pressure to sedimentary or igneous rock.
In several layers of sedimentary rock, the oldest rock would be found in the_____________ layer. lowest
Renewable resource __________ _________ can be replaced within a reasonably short period of time. Ex. Trees, fish
______________ _______ cannot be replaced once they are used up. Ex. Gas, oil, coal (all are fossil fuels) Nonrenewable resource
Renewable resources that cannot be used up are called _________ __________. Ex. Sunlight , wind inexhaustible resources
Most of the earth’s water is_____________. salt water
3 Less than ____ % of the earth’s water is fresh water.
1 Less than _______% of water is drinkable.
Name at least 4 sources of fresh water. lakes rivers streams ponds groundwater marshes swamps water collected behind dams
In the water cycle, ocean water evaporates, but the ______ does not. salt
evaporates In the water cycle, water _________ from the earth and its oceans, rises into the atmosphere,_________, falls to the earth as ___________, runs over the ground or sinks, eventually finds its way back to the oceans, and begins again. condenses precipitation
The main source of energy in the water cycle is the __________. SUN!
greenhouse effect The _________ __________ is the process by which certain gases in the atmosphere absorb heat and keep the earth warm.
The temperature of a nearby body of water can affect the _____________ of the land. temperature
Addition of excess greenhouse gases to the atmosphere can increase the greenhouse effect, causing __________ _________. global warming
unevenly The sun heats the Earth ________. The ________ cools and heats faster than water. land
Deposition can result in new areas of rich soil and in new landforms, such as __________ and beaches. deltas
Beaches ____________are formed by the deposition of sand by waves along a shoreline.
Fossils _________in rock layers tell about changes in the earth’s climate and land features and can be used to determine the age of the rock.
_____ ________ _______ show a tree’s age. Tree growth rings
constructive Landforms are a result of____________ and __________forces such as deposition of sediment and weathering. destructive
How do you determine the age of a tree? Tree growth rings
The Sun is the energy source of many things on earth. Name at least 3. Growth of plants Water Cycle Photosynthesis Creation of Winds
The layer of soil with the most capacity to retain water is ___________ . loam
Loam is a mix of _______ ,________, and _______. clay humus sand
Stalagmites and Stalactites are examples ____________, or build up of minerals in a cave. depostion
Landfills _____________are big holes in the ground where garbage was dumped and left to pile up.
What would be the effect of not having a clay or plastic lining beneath a landfill? Groundwater contamination
Physical Change __________ _________ is a change when the substance does not become a different substance. Ex. Peanuts=peanut butter
What force would cause the most rapid change to the Earth’s surface? Erosion caused by a river ora volcano? Volcano
How is a glacier a form of erosion? Shapes valleys and forms ridges
How does wind build land? depositing material
Conductor A ________________ allow electricity to continue flowing.
Mass On the moon your ________ (weight or mass) would stay the same and your _______ would change. (weight or mass) Weight
_____________ is the bending of light. Refraction
The energy of motion is known as ____________ ______________. Kinetic Energy
A roller coaster at the top of a hill has _________ ____________ Potential Energy
kinetic A hydroelectric plant changes the _______energy of moving water to _______ energy that powers homes. electrical