groundwater evaporation water cycle precipitation condensation Wordsplash habitat irrigation water vapor photosynthesis transpiration
Lesson 10A Wet Planet EQ: How is Earth’s water distributed among saltwater and freshwater?
How is Earth’s water distributed among saltwater and freshwater • Some people call Earth the “blue planet” because over 70% of Earth’s surface is covered with water. • Most of Earth’s freshwater is found in the polar ice caps near the North and South Poles. • From largest to smallest, the amounts of water on Earth are salt water (97%),solid fresh water (2%),liquid freshwater (1%).
Salt Water • Most of the water on Earth is in Earth’s oceans • Oceans contain salt water. • The salinity, or salt concentration, averages about 3.5%, or 35 grams of salt per kg of water. • In order of size from largest to smallest, Earth’s oceans are the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans.
Fresh Water • Most of the Earth’s freshwater is located in the polar caps. • Lakes, rivers, streams, and glaciers hold the rest of Earth’s surface freshwater. • A glacier is a very slow moving river of ice. • A large portion of the rest of Earth’s freshwater is trapped between underground layers of rock. This trapped freshwater is called groundwater.
Quick Check About how much of Earth’s surface is covered by water? A. 0% B. 30% C. 70% D. 100%
Quick Check From the largest to smallest, the amounts of water on Earth are • liquid fresh water, solid fresh water, salt water. B. salt water, solid fresh water, liquid fresh water. C. salt water, liquid fresh water, groundwater. D. groundwater, salt water, solid fresh water.
Quick Check A glacier is A. a river of liquid water. B. an ice cap. C. a solid lake. D. a slow river of ice.
Lesson 25Sun, Wind, and Water EQ: How does a drop of water move through the water cycle?
Wind • Earth receives heat energy from the sun through Radiation. • Radiation is the movement of energy through empty space. • Air at different places on Earth heats up unevenly. The uneven heating up of Earth’s air is what produces wind. • Cool air moves toward warmer air. Warm air moves away from cooler air. Moving air is wind.
Water • Very little water is ever lost on Earth • The sun is the source of energy that drives the water cycle. • Energy from the sun causes the water particles to move faster and escape into the air as water vapor.
Water • Water vapor rises into the air and cools down. The water molecules move slowerand come closertogether, or condense. This is called condensation. • Condensation forms clouds and precipitation such as rain, sleet, hail, and snow. • The precipitation falls to the ground and gathers there in puddles, ponds, rivers, lakes, and oceans. (Accumulation) • Some water seeps into the ground and collects there. This underground water is called groundwater. (runoff)
Water • Some groundwater finds its way into oceans. • Water on the surface is warmed again by the sun and will evaporate. So will water in the soil. • Water vapor also enters the air from plants. This is called transpiration. • This keeps the water cycle going.
Quick Check What is the source of energy that produces winds and causes evaporation? A. lightning B. Earth’s rotation C. the moon D. the sun
Quick Check Heating liquid water produces A. snow. B. rain. C. water vapor. D. groundwater.
Quick Check The sun’s energy reaches Earth through A. evaporation. B. condensation. C. radiation. D. wind.
Quick Check What process produces rain? A. condensation B. evaporation C. warming D. solidification
Quick Check Water vapor is a A. liquid B. solid C. gas D. form of energy
Quick Check The cooling of water vapor leads FIRST to A. cloud formation. B. evaporation. C. formation of groundwater. D. precipitation.
Quick Check What process produces a cloud? • Evaporation • Condensation • Radiation • warming
Lesson 11The World’s Oceans • EQ: How does the composition and topography of earth’s oceans vary by location?
Location of the World’s Oceans • The Pacific Ocean is the largest ocean. It is bordered by North America, South America, Asia, Australia, and Antarctica • The Atlantic is the second largest ocean. It is bordered by N. America, S. America, Africa, Europe, and Antarctica. • The third largest ocean is the Indian Ocean. It lies between the countries of India, Pakistan, Australia, and the continents of Africa and Antarctica.
Composition of the World’s Oceans • The main substance dissolved in ocean water is sodium chloride (NaCl) or table salt. • Other dissolved solid substances are sulfate, magnesium, calcium, and potassium. • Solid substances dissolved in sea water come from rivers, streams, rocks from the shore, volcanoes and underwater hot springs. • The concentration of all the dissolved substances in sea water is about 3.5%.
Composition of the World’s Oceans • The oceans also hold dissolved gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide. • Marine life such as fish need dissolved oxygen in sea water to live. • Sea plants such as seaweeds need carbon dioxide to survive. They get it from the dissolved carbon dioxide in sea water.
Topography of the World’s Oceans • Oceanographers have mapped the ocean floors by using special equipment. • Echo sounding, (pings), measure the time it takes a pulse of sound to go from the ship to the ocean floor and echo back to the ship. • The speed of sound in sea water averages about 1520 m per second.
Quick Check Which continents border the Atlantic Ocean? A. North America, South America, Asia, Australia B. Asia, Australia, Africa C. North America, South America, Europe, Africa D. South America, Europe, Asia, Australia
Quick Check Which substance do fish need to live and take in from water that you take in from air? A. salt B. oxygen C. carbon dioxide D. water
Quick Check Pings from an echo sounder aboard a ship make a round trip in 8 seconds. How far beneath the ship is the ocean floor? A. 2,920 meters B. 6,080 meters C. 11,680 meters D. 23,360 meters
Quick Check Which shows the order of Earth’s three major oceans from largest to smallest? A. Pacific, Atlantic, Indian B. Atlantic, Pacific, Indian C. Indian, Atlantic, Pacific D. Atlantic, Indian, Pacific
Quick Check If you were to walk along the ocean bottom from a beach, which of the following features would you reach after the continental shelf? A. the abyssal plain B. a seamount C. the mid-ocean ridge D. the continental slope
Quick Check About how deep is the deepest pat of the world’s oceans? A. 4000 meters B. 8000 meters C. 11,000 meters D. 14,000 meters
The Water CycleSection 11-1 • How is Earth’s water distributed among saltwater and freshwater resources? • How does Earth’s water move through the water cycle? • How do people and other living things use water?
Water on Earth • Most of Earth’s water is saltwater (97%) • Most saltwater is found in the oceans • Only about 3% of water is freshwater • All living things must share about 1% of the total amount of water on Earth
Distribution of Water on Earth • Saltwater oceans and lakes (97%) • Freshwater (3%) • Ice (76%) • Shallow Groundwater (12%) • Deep Groundwater (11%) • Lakes and rivers (.34%) • Water Vapor (0.037%) • All living things share less than 1% of total water on Earth!
The Water Cycle 1 • Water is naturally recycled through a process known as the water cycle • Water moves from bodies of water, land, and living things from Earth’s surface, up to the atmosphere and then back to Earth’s surface. • Steps for the water cycle are: evaporation, condensation, and precipitation
The Water Cycle 2 • The source of energy that drives the water cycle is the SUN! • Clouds formation – water vapor loses energy, cools down, condenses into liquid water droplets, droplets clump together around tiny dust particles, forming clouds • Most evaporated water comes from oceans, and most precipitation falls back into the oceans
The Water Cycle 3 • Evaporation – the process by which liquid water on the surface change to a gas • Condensation – process by which gas molecules change into a liquid. This process forms clouds • Precipitation – process in which clouds become too heavy to hold the water droplets, and the droplets fall to the Earth’s surface as rain, sleet, snow or hail
How Do People Use Water? • Humans use water for household purposes, agriculture, industry, transportation, and recreation. • Irrigation is the process of supplying water to areas for growing crops • Industry – to make products, cool off machines • Transportation – travel upon the oceans, lakes and rivers • Recreation – exercise and sports
Water and Living Things • Water important for living things to grow, reproduce and carry on other essential processes. • Photosynthesis – process of water, carbon dioxide and sunlight to make their own food • Habitat – place an organism lives and provides the things it needs to survive
Quick Check More than 97% of Earth’s total water supply is found in A. ice sheets. B. groundwater. C. the atmosphere. D. the oceans.
Quick Check The energy the drives the water cycle comes from A. the sun. B. the Earth. C. the rain. D. oceans.
Quick Check Rain that falls on a steep, paved street during a thunderstorm will most likely become A. groundwater. B. runoff. C. a spring. D. a reservoir.
Quick Check More than two-thirds of Earth’s freshwater is found in A. rivers and streams. B. ponds and lakes. C. glaciers and icebergs. D. wetlands.
Quick Check How does the water cycle renew Earth’s supply of fresh water? A. evaporation. B. condensation C. the sun D. precipitation
Ocean Water Chemistry • How salty is ocean water? • How do the conditions in the ocean change with depth? • Describe one factor that increases the salinity of seawater and one factor that decreases salinity.
The Salty Ocean • The average amount of salt in ocean water is about 3.5% or 35 grams of salt per one kilogram of water • Ocean water carries many different dissolved salts • Sodium Chloride (table salt) is the most abundant salt in the ocean • Factors increasing salinity include evaporation and freezing; factors decreasing salinity include precipitation and rivers • Most oxygen in oceans come from the atmosphere because it is closer to the surface of the water.
The Salty Ocean • Two gases found in the oceans are necessary for living things: oxygen and carbon dioxide • Temperature decreases in the ocean with depth • Pressure increases with depth in the ocean • Scuba divers are prevented from descending father than 40 m because of pressure
Divisions of the Global Oceans • Pacific- the largest ocean; getting smaller • Atlantic- the second largest; getting larger • Indian- third largest; • Southern- located along the border of Antarctica • Artic- smallest ocean; most oceanographers consider it as an extension of the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Oceans