About Albert Bandera • Born -December 4, 1925)Nationality-nanadian/American • FieldsPsychology, Philosophy of Action • InstitutionsStanford niversityAlma materUniversity of British ColumbiaUniversity of Iowa albert bandura
Social Learning - • People learn through observing others’ behavior, attitudes, and outcomes of those behaviors. “Most human behavior is learned observationally through modeling: from observing others, • The Behaviors that can be learned through modeling: • Many behaviors can be learned, at least partly, through modeling. Examples that can be cited are, students can watch parents read, students can watch the demonstrations of mathematics problems, or seen someone acting bravely and a fearful situation. Aggression can be learned through models. Much research indicate that children become more aggressive when they observed aggressive or violent models. Moral thinking and moral behavior are influenced by observation and modeling. This includes moral judgments regarding right and wrong which can in part, develop through modeling.
The Booby doll experiment In this experiment, he had children witness a model aggressively attacking a plastic clown called the Bobo doll. There children would watch a video where a model would aggressively hit a doll and " ‘...the model pummels it on the head with a mallet, hurls it down, sits on it and punches it on the nose repeatedly, kick it across the room, flings it in the air, and bombards it with balls...’(After the video, the children were placed in a room with attractive toys, but they could not touch them. The process of retention had occurred. Therefore, the children became angry and frustrated. Then the children were led to another room where there were identical toys used in the Bobo video. The motivation phase was in occurrence. the same children reproduce the violent behavior observed in the Bobo doll . the bobo doll experiment
Charecterstics of modle • Similarity ,between model and subject on sex ,age status.
motivation • Positive response to imitated–learning behavior • Negative response to imitated- no learning
Not all observed behaviors are effectively learned. Factors involving both the model and the learner can play a role in whether social learning is successful. Certain requirements and steps must also be followed. The following steps are involved in the observational learning and modeling process:
the person must first pay attention to the model. various factors increase or decrease the amount of attention paid. If the model is colorful and dramatic,, you will pay more attention. And if the model seems more like yourself, you pay more attention. Attention
Retention • The ability to store information.we store what we have seen the model doing in the form of mental images or verbal descriptions. When so stored, you can later “bring up” the image or description, so that you can to pull up information later. Includes symbolic coding, mental images, symbolic rehearsal. • symbolic representation • imaginable system verbal representation
reproduction • Once you have paid attention to the model and retained the information, it is time to actually perform the behavior you observed. Further practice of the learned behavior leads to improvement.
Motivation • Finally, in order for observational learning to be successful, you have to be motivated to imitate the behavior that has been modeled. Reinforcement and punishment play an important role in motivation. While experiencing these motivators can be highly effective, so can observing other experience some type of reinforcement or punishment.
Main Points • Attention: first pay attention to the model. • Retention: remember the behavior that has been observed. • Reproduction: the ability to replicate the behavior that the model has just demonstrated. • Motivation: the final necessary ingredient for modeling to occur is motivation, learners must want to demonstrate what they have learned.
prepared by • Sheeren siddiqui • M.Ed. 2011 • Maharaja college ujjain,M.P.