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Physical Education

Physical Education. Exam Revision. Topics we have covered. Effective Coaching Practices Skill learning principles and practice The coaching toolbox – characteristics, skills and responsibilities Physically Active Lifestyles PA concepts and health outcomes

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Physical Education

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  1. Physical Education Exam Revision

  2. Topics we have covered • Effective Coaching Practices • Skill learning principles and practice • The coaching toolbox – characteristics, skills and responsibilities • Physically Active Lifestyles • PA concepts and health outcomes • National Physical Activity Guidelines • Factors influencing PA • Promoting Active Living • Promoting active living

  3. Effective Coaching Practices Skill Classification Skill Development Learning Styles Stages of Learning

  4. Skill Classification • THREE categories of classification • Movement precision • GROSS or FINE • Type of Movement • DISCRETE, CONTINOUS or SERIAL • Predictability of the environment • OPEN or CLOSED

  5. GROSS v FINE Gross motor skills involve movements that use large muscle groups and make big movements, eg kicking a football Fine motor skills involve smaller movements with smaller muscle groups, eg writing or bouncing a tennis ball

  6. DISCRETE v CONTINOUS v SERIAL Discrete skills are those that have a distinct start and finish, eg A tennis serve Continuous skills are those that share a repetitive motion, eg swimming or running Serial skills are those that involve linking discrete skills together, eg gymnastics or dance routines

  7. OPEN v CLOSED Open skills are those that the individual needs to adapt to, with external factors influencing what needs to be done, eg golf shot outside on a windy day Closed skills are largely easier with no external influences. They are completely controlled by the individual, eg ten pin bowling

  8. STAGES OF LEARNING Cognitive Associative Autonomous

  9. STAGES OF LEARNING Cognitive stage: the “beginner” level of skill development. Involves many mistakes but shows fast improvement Associative stage: more consistent and less mistakes. Can tell why some errors occur and develop strategies to overcome them Autonomous stage: can detect their own errors and correct them, movement happens automatically

  10. LEARNING STYLES Visual learners Auditory learners Kinaesthetic learners

  11. LEARNING STYLES Visuallearners: learn by seeing things. These may be plays on the board, where to stand etc Auditorylearners: learn by listening to what needs to be done. “You need to stay in the hot spot” Kinaestheticlearners: learn by doing. Going through plays rather than just talking about them

  12. Practice • Blocked • Same skill continuously, eg serve only • Random • Different skills in the same training session, eg serve, forehand, backhand, volley etc. Part, whole, massed and distributed pg 213-5

  13. Feedback • Internal • Performers use their own senses to see, feel etc what happened • External • When others give insight to an athletes performance

  14. STYLES OF COACHING Authoritarian: Strict and demands discipline. Punishes for poor performance Casual: More of a supervisor than a coach. Lets players run the training sessions Democratic: Delegates roles to assistants Co-operative: Works with the players to receive input

  15. A COACHE’S ON FIELD ROLES Managing risk Abiding by the Coach’s Code of Behaviour Keeping good player – coach relationships Staying out of trouble and within ethical boundaries

  16. A COACH’S OFF FIELD ROLES Professional development Gaining accreditation and coaching pathways Coaching juniors, working with parents Working with officials Planning and reviewing

  17. OTHER SKILLS A COACH NEEDS • Communication skills • Motivation skills • Leadership • Conflict resolution • Understanding of group dynamics • Essential knowledge • Of the sport • Skill acquisition and biomechanics • Sports psychology • Injury prevention • Sports nutrition • Tactical and strategic sense

  18. Physically Active lifestyles Domains of Physical Activity Dimensions of Physical Activity Health Benefits of Physical Activity Consequences of Inactivity

  19. DOMAINS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY • The main domains of PA are • Leisure time • Household/gardening • Occupational • Active Transport • The following can also be seen as domains • Play • Exercise • Organised sport

  20. DIMENSIONS OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY • Dimensions of PA are different to domains of PA • They are these: • Frequency – How often PA is done • Intensity – How hard (HR) the activity is • Type – Weights, Cardio, Interval, Circuit, Flexibility etc • Duration – How long the individual exercises for

  21. Benefits of PA Improved cardiovascular function Improved strength and muscular endurance Resistance to fatigue Enhanced mental health and function Opportunity for successful experience and social interaction Improved appearance Greater lean body mass and less body fat Improved flexibility Bone development Reduced cancer risk Reduced effect of aging Improved wellness

  22. HEALTH RISKS ASSOCIATED WITH INACTIVITY Type 2 diabetes Obesity Cardiovascular disease Hypertension High cholesterol levels

  23. NATIONAL PHYSICAL ACTIVITY GUIDELINES - NPAGs Guidelines put in place by the government to minimise costs brought about by preventable illnesses caused by inactivity All different for children, youth, and adults

  24. NPAGs – CHILDREN U5 • Birth – 1 year: • Floor based play • 1-3: • Active for at least 3 hrs a day, every day • Younger than 2, no TV or electronic media • Maximum inactivity time = 1 hr

  25. NPAGs – CHILDREN 5 – 12 At least 60mins activity (up to several hrs) moderate – vigorous activity every day No more than 2 hours using electronic media for entertainment

  26. NPAGs – YOUTH 12 - 18 At least 60mins activity moderate – vigorous activity every day No more than 2 hours using electronic media for entertainment

  27. NPAGs – ADULTS 18 - 65 Think of movement as an opportunity, not an inconvenience Be active every day in as many ways as you can At least 30mins of moderate intensity PA on most, if not all days Some regular vigorous PA for extra health and fitness

  28. NPAGs - 65+ Some form of activity no matter what Be active in as many ways as possible 30mins of moderate activity every day Start at least at a level that is appropriate Continue a lifetime of PA that you enjoy

  29. OVERWEIGHT/OBESE CHILDREN More PA (age appropriate) than is currently being undertook

  30. OVERWEIGHT/OBESE ADULTS At least 60mins activity every day Once weight has been lost, 60-90mins activity a day to avoid weight regain

  31. FACTORS AFFECTING PHYSICAL ACTIVITY • Socioeconomic status • Income, education, where you live • Cultural background • What you think is important, culturally • Environmental factors • Trees, water, family • Social factors • Peers, spouse, family • Physical environment • Buildings, walking tracks, recreational facilities

  32. BARRIERS TO PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Lack of time Social influence Lack of energy Lack of will power Fear of injury Lack of skill Lack of resources

  33. PROMOTING ACTIVE LIVING Assessment of Physical Activity Physical environment, social environment, and policy approaches to PA at home, workplace, school and in community settings Elements of effective programs Media communication tools used to promote PA

  34. ASSESSMENT OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY • Measured at two levels • Population level • Individual level • Subjectively • More error ridden – recall surveys • Objectively • More accurate – proxy diary logs

  35. EXAMPLES OF SUBJECTIVE MEASURES Global Physical Activity Questionnaire International Physical Activity Questionnaire Active Australia Survey Multi-Activity Recall for Children and Adolescents Children Leisure Activities Survey


  37. HOW TO PROMOTE PHYSICAL ACTIVITY Physical environment approaches: changing the physical environment to make people more active Social environment approaches: making people more accessible to be active with Policy approaches: creating policies in which mandate, or at least encourage, more physical activity

  38. INTERVENTION PROGRAMS • A program that encourages change in an individuals behaviour • For a program to be successful, it must have 4 elements: • Formative evaluation – On going assessment • Process evaluation – collect data of implementation • Impact evaluation – achievement of program goals • Outcome evaluation – assessment of long term goals

  39. USING THE MEDIA FOR PROMOTION OF PHYSICAL ACTIVITY People see/hear/feel media everyday, hence why it is so powerful. Types of media that is effective include: TV Radio Billboards Magazines Web based information

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