Chapters 2 and 3: The Classical Period in China and India AP World History, Mr. Bartula
What is a Classical Period? • A period of advanced civilization • Technology • Cross cultural trade and contact • Ethical religion and philosophy • Population growth • Syncretism
Ca 1000 BCE—500 CETechnological Developments • Iron metallurgy • Hittites (Asia Minor ca 1200 BCE) • Stronger and more versatile than bronze • Levers, inclined planes, pulleys, wedges, wheels, sails • Power from human and animal labor
Population changes • Population growth in civilized areas • Diseases in civilized areas spread to hunter-gathering societies. • Many diseases became endemic in civilized areas • Exposure to pathogens caused virulent epidemics among other societies • Isolation caused substantially less disease in the Americas, Australia, and the Pacific Islands: Virgin soil areas.
Gender Structures • Patriarchal societies • Patrilocal structure • Philosophies and religions considered women necessary, but inferior to men. • Women had little access to education or economic power
Religious Changes in the Classical Era • The Axial Age ca 800 BCE- 200 BCE • Zoroaster ca 600 BCE • Isaiah and the “Age of the Prophets” 770-600 BCE • Confucius 551-479 BCE and Laozi 606-530 BCE • Upanishad texts ca 550 BCE, Buddha 563-483 BCE • Greek philosophy
Zoroaster • Dualism • Apocalyptic • Ahura-Mazda vs Ahriman • Devas
Hebrew Monotheism • Growing emphasis on personal God of morality • Early Hebrews worshipped Elohim (plural for “lords”) or El Shaddai “God the Mountaineer” • Henotheism
Moses: El Shaddai became YHWH (Yahweh) • Transcendant • Monotheism
Isaiah and the Prophets • God of Righteousness • Ethics: do right, show mercy, punish evil, do justice to ensure harmonious society
Classical Age China • Later Zhou Dynasty • Period of weak central government • Ca 600 BCE, only eight or nine large states remained
Warring States Period • Large population (There is no point in history in which China has not been the most heavily populated region.) • Large, conscripted armies led by professional soldiers • Professional governing class developed
“The Period of the One Hundred Schools” 551-233 BCE The most creative period in Chinese philosophy All the major schools of Chinese philosophy began
Confucianism • Kung fu tzu 551-479 BCE • “Master Kung” • Born in province of Lu • Early successful political career • Dismissed from government service • Became itinerant teacher
The Analects • Confucius’ teachings, recorded by his students
What is the right way to live? • Determine the right pattern to live and govern by. • Do this by studying the past. • Follow rituals, which are prescribed for conduct of every day life. • Neglecting ritual demonstrates moral anarchy.
Confucianism’s Basic Tenets • Confucius’ teachings have been followed by more people for more generations than any other human being. • Confucianism has influenced the development of Chinese and other East Asian civilizations: Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia, etc.
What is the chief goal of Confucianism? • An orderly society • Hierarchy • Patriarchy • The Emperor is the father of his people • The past is the model for the present
The Shi • An educated gentleman • Kindly to those beneath him • Obedient and respectful to those above him • Criticism of those above is acceptable if done politely • Shi-Bureaucrats
Jen • Humaneness • Humanity, benevolence, goodness, virtue • Always follow the highest concepts of behavior, even if impractical or foolish.
Te • Moral virtue • All people are basically good
The Second Sage • Mencius (Mong Ka) 372-289 BCE • The foremost student of Confucius
Righteousness (i) • The humaneness (jen) you show to others is influenced by the type of personal relationship you have to that person. • Jen is displayed according to your positions and to the obligations you owe to the other.
Mencius and Confucius compared • Both believed rulers were divinely placed to guarantee peace and order within their realms. • Mencius believed that a ruler who failed to bring about peace and order could be replaced, and the people absolved of loyalty to him. • People are basically good (te)
Xunzi (fl 298-238 BCE) • The third great Confucian scholar • Xunzi’s teachings are called “Legalism” • People are fundamentally depraved, selfish, greedy, and lustful
How can people be “made” to be good? • people could be made good through acculturation and education • Xunzi’s pupil Han Fei Tzu believed people are made good by state laws
Laws should punish all actions that harm others or the state and reward actions that benefit others or the state.
Confucianism and Legalism Compared • To Confucius, power is to be wielded for the benefit of the people. • To the Legalists, power was to control individual selfishness
Legalism’s Influence • Utilitarianism: people should have occupations that materially benefit others. • “Rule of Law”: Law is supreme over every individual, including rulers • Law must be uniformly applied, regardless of social standings (equality before the law)
Daoism • Laozi 606-530 BCE • “The Teachings of the Yellow Emperor and Laozi”
Tao te ching • The teachings of Laozi
Daoism • Behind all material things and all change in the world lies one fundamental, universal principle: • The Dao (The Way)
Characteristics of Daoism • Passivity • Calm • Non-striving (wu wei) • Humility • Lack of Planning
A Daoist Government Would: • Not wage war • Not be complex • Not interfere in people’s lives • Serve as a guide, not a governor
Later Daoists enocouraged mysticism and magic • Many Chinese doctors were Daoists • Feng Shui is a version of Daoism popular today.
Qin Dynasty China 256-206 BCE • Shi Huangdi became “First Emperor” • Conquered most of northern China by 221 BCE
Qin Developments • Centralized government under Legalist principles • Standardized weights and measures • Public works and building programs • Great Wall constructed to prevent invasions by Hsiung-nu
Fall of the Qin Dynasty • “Ruthless efficiency” led to harsh, Legalistic rule • Peasant Revolts over heavy taxation, forced labor • Qin collapsed in 206 BC, four years after the death of the First Emperor