Classicism Defined • The period of the ancient Greeks and Romans • A standard (enduring) • Genre of music • Time period 1750-1820
Architecture • Recalled ancient classical • U.S. Capital • Monticello
Music of the Classical Era • Began: death of Bach • Ended: Beethoven (mid-life)
Classical Thinking • Reason was supreme • Sought the perfect society • Enlightenment • Beauty • Rules were valuable
Music of the Classical Era • Written for middle class • Non-sophisticated Listener • Simple and Melodic Themes • Large Room • Movements have beginning, middle, end • Easier to play
LIFE-TIME-LINES BEETHOVEN 1770-1827 MOZART 1756-1789 HAYDN 1732-1809 1770 1820
Joseph Haydn • Father figure to Mozart and Beethoven • Worked for Prince Esterhazy • Father of the symphony • Included jokes in his symphonies • Wrote in most genres • Freely gave time and advice • Relationship with Mozart
“I write my music in order that the weary and worn or the men burdened with affairs might enjoy a few minutes of solace and refreshment.” — Haydn
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart • Began composing before age 5 • Life of depression and creativity • In Salzburg • Court composer • Vienna • Friendship with Haydn • Struggle for money
Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart1756-1791 • Born in Salzburg • 7th child of Leopola and Anna Maria • only he and sister Nannerl survived infancy
Mozart played for kings and queens. This portrait of him was painted in 1762, when he was six years old. Children during Mozart’s time dressed just like adults. He just finished playing for Empress Maria Theresa of Austria.
As Mozart grew older, his reputation spread. Not only was he a gifted musician, but he could also compose his own music. Mozart at 14, 1770.
Able to hear complete pieces in his head • Capability for output • 10 years: • 8 Symphonies • 17 Piano Concertos • 6 Operas • Clarinet quartet and quintet • Requiem Mass • 11 String Quartets • 5 String Quintets • Many Individual Works
“Though it be long, the work is complete and finished in my mind. I take out of the bag of my memory what has previously been collected into it. For this reason the committing to paper is done quickly enough.” — Mozart
“What a delight this is I cannot tell — all this producing takes place in a pleasing, lively dream.” — Mozart
Mozart was 36 years old when he died in 1791. In his short life he wrote over 600 compositions. This portrait, painted after Mozart’s death, is said to look the most like him. It was painted in 1819.
Mozart’s Music • Simple melodies • Contrasting moods • Rich orchestration • Perfected the serenade
Mozart’s Music • Favored the piano • Concertos written for his performance • Later symphonies considered his best • Operas
Ludwig Van Beethoven • 1770-1827. • Born in Bonn. • Died in Vienna.
Young adulthood • Beethoven went to Vienna, Austria to learn more about composing when he was 17. • He had to return home when his mother died, and help raise his brothers.
Ludwig van Beethoven • Supported his family as a child • Scholarship to Vienna • Played for Mozart • Made the piano popular • Second scholarship to Vienna • Taught by Haydn
“I carry my thoughts within me long, often very long before I write them down. As I know what I want, the fundamental idea never deserts me. It mounts, it grows in stature. I hear, I see the picture in its whole extent standing all of a piece before my spirit, and there remains for me only the task of writing it down.” -Beethoven
Beethoven’s Music • 2 periods of composition • Classical • Romantic • May have been caused by his oncoming deafness • Sadness • Moonlight Sonata
Beethoven Symphonies • Supreme architect • Tied all movements into a theme • 5th • Fate versus hope • 9th • Finale • Ode To Joy
Jacques Louis David Napoleon in his study
Jacques Louis David Coronation of Napoleon
“How humiliated I have felt if somebody standing beside me heard the sound of a flute in the distance and I heard nothing...It is impossible for me to say to people, ‘Speak louder, for I am deaf.’ How would it be possible for me to admit to a weakness of the one sense that should be perfect to a higher degree in me than in theirs. So forgive me if you see me draw back from your company which I would so gladly share. I would have ended my life. It was only my art that held me back for it seemed impossible to leave the world until I have brought forth all that is within me.” — Beethoven
“I am resolved to rise superior to every obstacle. With whom need I be afraid of measuring my own strength? I will take Fate by the throat. It shall not overcome me. O how beautiful it is to be alive—would that I could live a thousand times.” -Beethoven
Beethoven’s Deafness • “Though born with a fiery, active temperament I was soon to withdraw from society, to live a life alone. If at times I tried to forget all this, oh how harshly was I flung back by the doubly sad experience of my bad hearing. Yet it wasn’t possible for me to say to people, “Speak Louder, shout for I am deaf! Ah, how could I possibly admit to an infirmity in the one sense that ought to be more perfect in me than in others, a sense that I once possessed in the highest degree.”
He could hear the music inside his head….and he wasn’t bothered with other noises around him.He wrote some of his best music during this time.
Patronage System • Exchange of artistic services for • A place to live • A Salary • Clothes • Rank in Society • Depends on the patron. • Servant to aristocratic patronage.
Ruminate on... • patronage and • Haydn • Mozart • Beethoven • why the French Revolution and industrialization led to the demise of patronage. • why less complex music is favored in classical culture.
Patronage: a Comparison • Haydn: patron was Prince Esterhazy
His Later Years He still composed when he was deaf…..how could he do this?
Haydn? • Haydn was a traditionalist first. • Haydn believed that ISOLATION forces one to be come an original. • He was isolated in the Esterhazy Palace for most of his career. His music is original. • Beethoven will realize this pathos later in in career.
“My prince was always satisfied with my works. I not only had the encouragement of constant approval, but as conductor of an orchestra, I could make experiments, observe what produced an effect and what weakened it, and was thus in a position to improve, alter, make additions, or omissions and be as bold as I pleased. I was cut off from the world. There was no one to confuse or torment me. I was forced to become original.” — Haydn
Patronage: a Comparison • Mozart:
“[My pay is] too much for what I do, too little for what I could do.” — Mozart
Patronage: a Comparison • Beethoven • Beethoven manipulated the patronage system so that he could live more freely. • Gave music lessons to wealthy families. • Sold music to many publishers. • Even when Napoleon was threatening the whole survival of continental Europeans, Beethoven had contacts with publishers in England who would continue to publish his music. • Beethoven: Patronage • Invited into the homes of the aristocracy. • Treated as an equal to the aristocracy. • Believed that one must be treated as an equal if music is to be produced.
Beethoven’s Contract • “But as it has been demonstrated that only one when he is free from care as possible can devote himself to a single department of activity and create works of magnitude which are exalted and which ennoble art, the undersigned have decided to place Herr Ludwig van Beethoven in a position where the necessities of life shall not cause him embarrassment or clog his powerful genius.”
Beethoven’s Contract • All Beethoven had to do was to declare Vienna his home.” • It is good to walk among the aristocracy, but first you must MAKE them respect you.”