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Foodborne Illness and Food Safety

Foodborne Illness and Food Safety

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Foodborne Illness and Food Safety

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  1. Foodborne Illness and Food Safety Campylobacter and Other Common Foodborne Pathogens Presented by : Tracey M. Steeno, MPH student Walden University MPH 6165-4, Instructor: Stephen Arnold Winter Quarter, 2010

  2. Objectives • What are common foodborne illnesses • What are some common microbes and foods associated with them • What are common symptoms • How to avoid illness • What is Campylobacter • What is it • How common, prevalence • Transmission • Common symptoms and complications • Prevention

  3. Foodborne Illness of Microbial Origin • Food Intoxication • Toxins can be released by microbes growing in the food • Toxins are ingested and causes symptoms • Short Incubation • Immediate – 8 Hours • Enterotoxins (GI tract) • Exotoxins (Blood) • Food Infection • Infectious agent is introduced into our food • Microbe causes illness • Bacteria • Viruses • Parasites • Molds • Longer incubation time • >12Hours Pommerville, J. C. (2007). Alcamo’s Fundamentals of Microbiology, (5th Ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

  4. Common causes • Bacteria • E. coli • Salmonella spp.. • Vibrio cholera • Bacillus cereus • Listeria monocytogenes • Staphylococcus aureus • Clostridium botulinums   • Campylobacter spp. Pommerville, J. C. (2007). Alcamo’s Fundamentals of Microbiology, (5th Ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

  5. Common Causes cont. • Viral • Hepatitis A (HAV) and Hepatitis E (HEV) • Norovirus (NoV) – Norwalk or Norwalk-like • Parasite • Giardia lamblia • Cryptosporidium • Molds • Aspergillusspp. • Mucor spp. • Penicillium spp. Pommerville, J. C. (2007). Alcamo’s Fundamentals of Microbiology, (5th Ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

  6. Common Food Sources • Raw foods of animal origin • Raw meat and poultry, • Raw eggs • Unpasteurized milk • Raw shellfish • Improperly refrigerated dairy products • Improperly heated foods • Improperly handled food – cross contamination Pommerville, J. C. (2007). Alcamo’s Fundamentals of Microbiology, (5th Ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

  7. Symptoms of Foodborne Illness • Nausea • Vomiting • Gastrointestinal distress (gas & bloating) • Diarrhea • Fever • Other symptoms can include headaches, dysentery, rice-water stools, joint or muscle pain, weakness . . . • The extent of these symptoms varies according to the microbe and the dose or amount ingested. • Each bacteria can have unique symptoms and side effects associated with them. Pommerville, J. C. (2007). Alcamo’s Fundamentals of Microbiology, (5th Ed.). Boston: Jones & Bartlett Publishers.

  8. CAMPYLOBACTERIOSIS Image provided by: http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/eid/vol5no1/altekruse.htm

  9. Campylobacter According to the United States Department of Agriculture, Campylobacter is the second most frequent cause of reported foodborne illness in the United States United States Department of Agriculture. (2006). Campylobacter questions and answers. Retrieved from http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Campylobacter_Questions_and_Answers/index.asp

  10. How Common is Campylobacteriosis? • It is the most common cause of gastroenteritis • Campylobacteriosis is estimated to affect over 2.4 million persons every year, or 0.8% of the population • 13 cases are diagnosed each year for each 100,000 persons in the population • Many more cases go undiagnosed or unreported • Campylobacteriosis occurs much more frequently in the summer months than in the winter. • Approximately 124 persons with Campylobacter infections die each year Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Foodborne illness. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/foodborneinfections_g.htm

  11. Campylobacter • The Campylobacter species responsible for illness • C. jejuni (99% of all Campylobacter infections) • C. coli • C. lari Gen-Probe. (n.d.). Accu-Probe:Campylobacter culture identification test. Retrieved from http://www.gen-robe.com/pdfs/pi/102842.pdf

  12. Transmission • Consumption of • Raw or Undercooked meat and poultry • Other meat sources (beef, pork) • Raw or unpasteurized milk and cheese • Unchlorinated water • Improper handling or cross-contamination of food items • Fecal-oral contamination; improper hygiene United States Department of Agriculture. (2006). Campylobacter questions and answers. Retrieved from http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Campylobacter_Questions_and_Answers/index.asp

  13. Symptoms and Duration • Diarrhea • Sometimes bloody (tar-black loose stool) • Gastrointestinal distress • Cramping and pain • Nausea and Vomiting • Fever • Tiredness • Dehydration Symptom typically last 2-5 days Diagnosis – stool culture National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease. (2007). Campylobacteriosis. Retrieved from http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/topics/campylobacteriosis/

  14. Complications • Reactive arthritis (FDA, 2009) • Hemolytic uremic syndrome following septicemia (FDA, 2009) • Convulsions (FDA, 2009) • Meningitis (NIAID, 2007) • Bacteremia (NIAID, 2007) • Guillain-Barre Syndrome (NIAID, 2007)

  15. Why is Campylobacter such a problem? • Most chickens are infected with Campylobacter • > 60% of chickens contain Campylobacter (Price, Johnson, Vailes & Silbergeld, 2005; USDA, 2006) • Many have Campy. strains that are antibiotic resistant (Price, Johnson, Vailes & Silbergeld, 2005) • Raw foods are not sterile (USDA, 2006) • there is no law requiring them to be • A small dose can cause illness • Approximately 500 microscopic Campy. organisms will cause illness (USDA, 2006)

  16. Prevention • Treat all raw meat as if it was contaminated – poultry, beef, pork, etc. • Refrigerate all foods at < 400 F (<100 C) • Avoid eating raw or undercooked meats • Cook all meats to designated temperatures • http://www.fightbac.org/content/view/93/2/ • Avoid raw eggs • Avoid raw milk and soft cheese products (unpasteurized) • Avoid Cross-contamination • separate utensils and cutting boards for meats, produce, and breads • WASH HANDS ! • Before all food prep and after • After all toilet visits United States Department of Agriculture. (2006). Campylobacter questions and answers. Retrieved from http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Campylobacter_Questions_and_Answers/index.asp

  17. Points To Remember • Foodborne illness can be caused by -- Bacteria, Viruses, Parasites, & Molds • Cross-contamination, undercooked meats and unrefrigerated food, raw milk and eggs, and poor hand hygiene can all cause foodborne illness • Campylobacter is the 2nd leading cause of foodborne illness • Campylobacteriosis causes self limiting diarrhea accompanied by nausea and vomiting; treatment is not usually necessary although complications are possible • Good hand-washing and food safety habits will help prevent Campylobacter infections

  18. Quiz Time! The next slide is a picture. I want you to examine it and based on what we have gone over today regarding foodborne illness, answer these questions: • What is the source of the contamination • What could have been done to avoid illness

  19. Any Questions on Campylobacter or Foodborne Illness ?

  20. Crave More Information ? United States Department of Agriculture. (n.d.). Molds on food: Are they dangerous? Retrieved from http://www.fsis.usda.gov/PDF/Molds_on_Food.pdf Fight BAC! Found at http://www.fightbac.org/ Food Safety Tips from the USDA found at http://www.fsis.usda.gov/fact_sheets/index.asp?src_location=content&src_page=FSEd

  21. Thank You ! Enjoy the Rest of Your Day

  22. References Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2005). Foodborne illness. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/ncidod/dbmd/diseaseinfo/foodborneinfections_g.htm Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2008). Campylobacter. Retrieved from http://www.cdc.gov/nczved/dfbmd/disease_listing/campylobacter_gi.html Gen-Probe. (n.d.). Accu-Probe:Campylobacter culture identification test. Retrieved from http://www.gen-probe.com/pdfs/pi/102842.pdf National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Disease.  (2007). Campylobacteriosis.      Retrieved from http://www3.niaid.nih.gov/topics/campylobacteriosis/

  23. Price, L. B., Johnson, E., Vailes, R., & Silbergeld, E. (2005). Fluoroquinolone-resistant Campylobacter isolates from conventional and antibiotic-free chicken products. Environmental Health Perspectives 113(5), 557-560. doi:10.1289/ehp.7647 U.S. Food and Drug Administration. (2009). Bad bug book: Campylobacter jejuni.     Retrieved from http://www.fda.gov/Food/FoodSafety/FoodborneIllness/FoodborneIllnessFoodbornePathogensNaturalToxins/BadBugBook/ucm070024.htm United States Department of Agriculture. (2005). Molds on food: Are they dangerous? Retrieved from http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Molds_On_Food/index.asp United States Department of Agriculture. (2006). Campylobacter questions and answers. Retrieved from http://www.fsis.usda.gov/Fact_Sheets/Campylobacter_Questions_and_Answers/index.asp