FOODBORNE ILLNESS MRS. WARREN
What is a foodborne Illness • Foodborne Illness • A disease transmitted to people by food. • Foodborne Illness Outbreak • Two or more people get the same illness after eating the same food. Costs the United States BILLIONS of dollars each year!!
Raw meats in supermarkets are contaminated with harmful bacteria.Meats must always be properly cooked
FOOD CONTAMINATION vsSPOILAGETo prevent foodborne illness it is important to recognize the hazards (something with the potential to cause harm) that make food unsafe
FOOD CONTAMINATION • Food that has been exposed to any thing physical, chemical or biological (pathogens). • Pathogens are not detectable by sight, smell or taste. • Pathogens – Harmful, disease causing bacteria
Damage to the edible quality of food Often detected by sight, smell or taste FOOD SPOILAGE
CONTAMINATION • Physical • Chemical • Biological
PHYSICAL CONTAMINATION • Occurs when objects such as dirt, hair, nails, staples, metal shavings, glass, fruit pits or other objects enter food.
Nails Hair Glass
SAFETY CONTROLS • Do not use glass to scoop ice. Use only commercial food-grade plastic or metal scoops. • Do not chill any glasses or any food items in ice that will be used for foods. • Place and maintain protective shields on lights over food storage and preparation areas. • Clean can openers before and after each use. • Remove staples, clips and similar items from food containers.
CHEMICAL CONTAMINATION • Occurs when hazards such as pesticides, food additives, cleaning products and toxic metals enter the food.
SAFETY CONTROLS • Keep food covered. • Wash all fruits and vegetables. • Use only food-grade containers. Avoid lead, copper, and zinc • Follow label directions when storing and using chemicals. • Store chemicals in their original containers. • Store chemicals away from food and food surface contact areas.
BIOLOGICAL CONTAMINATION • Caused by disease-causing micro-organisms, certain plants and fish which carry poisons.
MICRO-ORGANISMS-Small, living organisms • Bacteria • Spores • Viruses • Parasites • Fungi • Molds
TYPES OF BACTERIA Aerobic • Needs Oxygen To Survive Anaerobic • Does Not Need Oxygen To Survive Faculative • Can Survive With or Without Oxygen
BACTERIA Pathogenic: (infectious, disease causing) • They feed on Potentially Hazardous Food and multiply quickly (every 20 minutes). Toxigenic: (poisonous) • Bacteria that produce toxins as they multiply, die and break down.
HOW BACTERIA REPRODUCES When an individual organism increases in size via cell multiplication and remains intact, the process is called "vegetative growth".
SPORES • Thick walled (“super-survival unit”) protective shell around a bacteria.
VIRUSES • Viruses are the smallest and simplest life form known. • Unlike bacteria, viruses need a cell host to reproduce. They invade then take-over. • Like bacteria, some viruses may survive cooking or freezing. • Like bacteria, viruses can be transmitted to a human host by a human, food or food-contact surfaces.
WHAT IS THE BEST DEFENSE AGAINST FOODBORNE VIRUSES? Good Personal Hygiene
PARASITES • Micro-organisms that need a host to survive. • Trichinella Spirales Trichinosis – disease that causes painful abdominal and muscular cramps
FUNGI • Micro-organisms that range from single-celled plants to mushrooms.
MOLDS • Cells that are usually microscopic. • Mold colonies may be seen as fuzzy growth. • Mainly caused by food spoilage • May produce toxins • Illness, infections, allergic reactions
Incubation period is the time elapsed between exposure to a pathogenic organism and when symptoms and signs are first apparent.
FATTOM • Food • Acidity • Time • Temperature • Oxygen • Moisture
FOOD • High-protein foods are likely to be already contaminated or may be easily contaminated later.
ACIDITY • Acidity is measured from 0 (very acid) 14 (very alkaline) • PHF 4.6 – 7.0 • Acid retards bacterial growth
TIME • Potentially hazardous foods should not be in the Danger Zone for more than 4 hours total.
TEMPERATURE • DANGER ZONE 41o – 135o F • DANGER ZONE Bacteria grows most rapid
OXYGEN Aerobic • Needs Oxygen To Survive Anaerobic • Does Not Need Oxygen To Survive Faculative • Can Survive With or Without Oxygen
MOISTURE • PHF have a water activity of 0.97 – 0.99 • Water activity level of 0.85 is not considered potentially hazardous • Reduce water activity level Freezing Dehydrating Adding sugar or salt
CROSS-CONTAMINATION • Transfer of harmful substances or disease-causing micro-organisms to food, food-contact surfaces. • SAFETY CONTROLS • Avoid working with raw and cooked foods • Thoroughly clean surfaces after each use • Proper hand-washing • Do not touch dirty and clean dishes at same time
Raw Roast Beef Raw Chicken Salad Pies
Raw Roast Beef Raw Chicken Pies Salad
Raw Roast Beef Raw Chicken Pies Salad
Raw Chicken Pies Salad Raw Roast Beef
Pies Salad Raw Roast Beef Raw Chicken
HAND WASHING • Use warm water to moisten hands • Apply soap • Rub hands and forearms briskly for at least 20 seconds. Scrub between fingers and clean nails • Rinse thoroughly under running water • Dry hands and arms using a single use paper towel or hot air dryer
HAND WASH STATION Single Use Towels Soap Hot Cold Water Trash Receptacle
THAWING • Refrigerator • Cooking • Microwave • Cold Running Water - > 70o