Cell Structure • The “little organs” that perform important functions in the cell are Organelles
Cell Structure • There are two main parts (areas): • The Nucleuscontrols the cells activities and contains DNA (genetic material). • Everything outside of the nucleus is the Cytoplasm.
Cell Structure • CellMembrane– Fence around the factory • It is the protective barrier for the cell. • It regulates what enters and leaves the cell. • All cells have a cell membrane
Cell Structure • Nucleus - The main office •The control center of the cell •Contains DNA which has instructions for making proteins and other molecules
Cell Structure • Nucleus - The main office •Surrounded by nuclear envelope (membrane with two layers) that has holes in it called nuclear pores which allow things into and out of the nucleus. • Chromatin is found in the nucleus. It forms Chromosomesduring cell division • Nucleolus is an area in the nucleus where ribosomes are made
Cell Structure Cytoplasm – Open Spaces • Gel-like substance throughout the cell • Growth materials for cells are made here • Helps cells get rid of wastes • Supports organelles
Cell Structure • Mitochondria - Powerhouse of the cell • Convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that the cell can use. • In humans, nearly all mitochondria come from the egg (mom) • Contain their own DNA
Cell Structure • Centrioles - scaffolding • tubes found in the centrosomes. • Centrioles help divide DNA. (Shoot “webs”, like Spiderman) • Centrioles form cilia and flagella.
Cell Structure • Lysosomes - Cleanup Crew • Small organelles filled with enzymes • Breakdown lipids, carbohydrates, and proteins into small molecules that can be used by the cell • Breakdown worn out parts and "junk" in cell • Tay-Sachs is a disease that has been traced to lysosomes that fail to function correctly
Cell Structure • Endoplasmic Reticulum - Assembly Line in factory • Where lipids and proteins are made • Rough ER has ribosomes on it and makes protein that goes into ER and is changed and repackaged • Smooth ER does not have ribosomes. It makes lipids and detoxifies the body
Cell Structure Ribosomes - Machine in factory • Small particles of RNA where proteins are made using a recipe from DNA in the nucleus (the boss) • Found in the cytoplasm and attached to Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum
Cell Structure • GolgiApparatus - FedEx • Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins for storage or export from the cell • Ships proteins to their final destination In the cell or outside the cell • AKA: Golgi Bodies, Golgi Complex
Cell Structure • Vacuoles - Storage Containers • Saclike structure for storage of water, salts, proteins, and carbohydrates • Some cells like plant cells have one large vacuole to store liquid • Some unicellular organisms have a contractile vacuole which pumps excess water out of the cell to maintain homeostasis
Cell Structure • Chloroplasts - Solar power plants • Found in plants • Capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical • energy through process called photosynthesis • Inside are stacks of membranes which contain the green • pigment chlorophyll http://youtu.be/gcVg3PnoI1Y
Cell Structure • CellWall– Brick wall outside of the fence • Found outside cell membrane of plants, algae, fungi and many prokaryotes • Provides support and protection for cell • Plant cell walls are made mainly of cellulose
Cell Structure • Cells have an internal structure. • The cytoskeleton has many functions. • supports and shapes cell • helps position and transport organelles • provides strength • assists in cell division • aids in cell movement • Inside a CellCell Structure