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Cell Structure

Cell Structure

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Cell Structure

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  1. Cell Structure • The “little organs” that perform important functions in the cell are Organelles

  2. Cell Structure • There are two main parts (areas): • The Nucleuscontrols the cells activities and contains DNA (genetic material). • Everything outside of the nucleus is the Cytoplasm.

  3. Cell Structure • CellMembrane– Fence around the factory • It is the protective barrier for the cell. • It regulates what enters and leaves the cell. • All cells have a cell membrane

  4. Cell Structure • Nucleus - The main office •The control center of the cell •Contains DNA which has instructions for making proteins and other molecules

  5. Cell Structure • Nucleus - The main office •Surrounded by nuclear envelope 
(membrane with two layers) that has holes in
it called nuclear pores which allow things into and out of the nucleus. • Chromatin is found in the nucleus. It forms 
 Chromosomesduring cell division • Nucleolus is an area in the nucleus where 
ribosomes are made

  6. Cell Structure Cytoplasm – Open Spaces • Gel-like substance throughout the cell • Growth materials for cells are made here • Helps cells get rid of wastes • Supports organelles

  7. Cell Structure • Mitochondria - Powerhouse of the cell • Convert chemical energy stored in food into compounds that the cell can use. • In humans, nearly all mitochondria come from the egg (mom) • Contain their own DNA

  8. Cell Structure • Centrioles - scaffolding • tubes found in the centrosomes. • Centrioles help divide DNA. (Shoot “webs”, like Spiderman) • Centrioles form cilia and flagella.

  9. Cell Structure • Lysosomes - Cleanup Crew • Small organelles filled with enzymes • Breakdown lipids, carbohydrates, and 
proteins into small molecules that can be 
used by the cell • Breakdown worn out parts and "junk" in cell • Tay-Sachs is a disease that has been traced 
to lysosomes that fail to function correctly

  10. Cell Structure • Endoplasmic Reticulum - Assembly Line in factory • Where lipids and proteins are made • Rough ER has ribosomes on it and makes protein that goes into ER and is changed and repackaged • Smooth ER does not have ribosomes. It makes lipids and detoxifies the body

  11. Cell Structure Ribosomes - Machine in factory • Small particles of RNA where proteins are 
made using a recipe from DNA in the nucleus 
(the boss) • Found in the cytoplasm and attached to 
Rough Endoplasmic Reticulum

  12. Cell Structure • GolgiApparatus - FedEx • Modifies, sorts, and packages proteins for storage or export from the cell • Ships proteins to their final destination In the cell or outside the cell • AKA: Golgi Bodies, Golgi Complex

  13. Cell Structure • Vacuoles - Storage Containers • Saclike structure for storage of water, salts, 
proteins, and carbohydrates • Some cells like plant cells have one large vacuole to store liquid • Some unicellular organisms have a 
contractile vacuole which pumps excess water out of the cell to maintain homeostasis

  14. Cell Structure • Chloroplasts - Solar power plants • Found in plants • Capture energy from sunlight and convert it into chemical • energy through process called photosynthesis • Inside are stacks of membranes which contain the green • pigment chlorophyll http://youtu.be/gcVg3PnoI1Y

  15. Cell Structure • CellWall– Brick wall outside of the fence • Found outside cell membrane of plants, algae, fungi and many prokaryotes • Provides support and protection for cell • Plant cell walls are made mainly of cellulose

  16. Cell Structure • Cells have an internal structure. • The cytoskeleton has many functions. • supports and shapes cell • helps position and transport organelles • provides strength • assists in cell division • aids in cell movement • Inside a CellCell Structure