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Coffee. By, Savannah Schulze. Origins of Coffee. Coffee drinking first became popular in Yemen in the 15 th century Coffee derives its name from Arabic Qahwah is the Arabic word for coffee and Turkish influence resulted in pronunciation as qahveh

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  1. Coffee By, Savannah Schulze

  2. Origins of Coffee • Coffee drinking first became popular in Yemen in the 15th century • Coffee derives its name from Arabic • Qahwah is the Arabic word for coffee and Turkish influence resulted in pronunciation as qahveh • Italian origin? Caffe but is derived from Turkish, which derives from Arabic • Qahwah is the name given to coffee in Arabic but means ‘wine’

  3. Yemenite Sufi Circles • Coffee first became popular in Yemenite Sufi circles who began to refer to coffee as wine because like wine it also dulls the appetite and therefore was called qahwah • Coffee became the replacement for wine and Sufi’s transferred the meaning “wine” to “coffee” and introduced it further into Cairo • Coffee was spread to Turkey through the Sufi’s who used the coffee to help keep them stay awake during devotional exercises performed all night

  4. Coffee’s True Origin • Coffee is not a native plant to Arabia • It is a native plant of Abyssinia (Ethiopia) and can be found growing wild and cultivated • From Ethiopia it was brought to Arabia and a variety of legends exist to how coffee was discovered

  5. Coffee Legends • Around 800 A.D. coffee was said to be discovered by an Ethiopian goatherd whose name was Kaldi • Kaldi noticed his goats had more energy and were dancing from shrub to shrub eating the cherry-red berries that contained the coffee bean • He tried the beans himself and soon found himself frolicking with his flock

  6. The Coffee Plant • Is a woody perennial evergreen, that belongs the Rubiaceae family, there are two main species cultivated today • Coffeearabica-accounts for 70-80% of the world’s production • Coffee canephora- known as Robusta coffee and is more resilient than Arabica shrubs, but does not produce the same taste that is considered inferior to that of Arabica • Coffee bean development-video

  7. Where is Coffee Grown? • The top ten coffee producers are highlighted in yellow • Brazil makes up a third of this production and is by far the largest producer in the coffee producing market • The Bean Belt- bounded by the Tropics of Cancer and Capricorn, coffee is grown within the Tropics • How did coffee get to all these locations?

  8. The Spread of Coffee • Coffee began to leave Africa via two trade routes, one located at Masawa, a city in Ethiopia located on the Red Sea and down the Blue Nile to Khartoum • Coffee is not said to have spread outside of Africa and Arabia until the 1600s and Arabia was known to make export beans infertile by boiling them

  9. There are many legends to how coffee spread into Europe Arrived strapped to the belly of an Indian smuggler who left Mecca with the seeds and initiated agricultural expansion of the coffee bean into Europe For about a half a century Arabia supplied Europe with all coffee consumed and was considered a luxury item by British elite Coffee was supplied to the Europeans by the old Dutch East India Company that traded with the Arabian ports on the Red Sea Coffee in Europe

  10. In 1690, the expansion would soon reach European colonies and the Dutch introduced the first European owned coffee estates on colonial Java From Java it made its way to Sumatra and the Philippines Cultivation of coffee was a success in these new areas because unlike wine and tea, coffee can be raised with little difficulty and required little help from the Europeans Coffee was also grown in Dutch gardens in Amsterdam, these plants launched the introduction of coffee into the Dutch colony of Surinam Coffee was then introduced into Jamaica by the British and Martinique by the French Coffee then spread to the rest of Latin America Shift in coffee ideology Expansion of Coffee into European Colonies

  11. Shift in Coffee Ideology • During early cultivation coffee was restricted to remote parts of Yemen and was still considered as a resource for merchants who could profit and governments who profited through taxes • Social and political consequences were few and consisted of: • Coffee in Islam? • Concerns with coffee houses as centers for conspiracy and deception

  12. Shift • However, this changed with the introduction of coffee into European colonies and control of production by commercial capital • The colonists coerced the peoples of the colonies into producing coffee or used African slave labor

  13. Produces more than twice as much coffee as the rest of the world combined Before, this time Arabia produced all of the world’s coffee and today only yields about one hundred and sixtieth percent of this production, but yet produces more than it ever had Latin America

  14. Coffee Century • The history of coffee in Latin America begins in the late 18th century when the first coffee trees were introduced • This was followed by the coffee century in Latin America and entered into a coffee period that was accompanied by a dramatic increase in the world trade of coffee • The consumption of coffee in the U.S. increased from 3lbs in 1830 to 10lbs in 1900, and 16lbs in 1960 • With this Expansion we see: • Territorial expansion • Movement of settlers • Expanding world market-strive to increase production and profit • The creation of class conflicts and the creation of the coffee elite

  15. The Coffee Elite • The coffee elite formed in the midst of the 19th century coffee dynasties and was built at the expense of much of the rest of the population • Resembles those of the colonial aristocracies • Focused in Central America in the countries of El Salvador, Costa Rica, and Nicaragua

  16. Coffee Elite… • The coffee elite was made up of aristocratic families of pure decent and new European immigrants • Around two or three families control the entire coffee industry • How do these families remain in power? • Lawless military regimes that make family ties the only safe way to gain political power • Absence of mass parties and effective parliamentary institutions • Limited development of higher education, professional education could only be acquired abroad

  17. Transnational Corporations • Market is controlled by 4 coffee companies • Kraft foods, Nestle, Proctor and Gamble, and Sara lee • These companies produce the major coffee brands: Maxwell House, Nescafe, Folgers, and Douwe Egberts • Nestlé's instant coffee alone is consumed at a rate of 3,900 cups of coffee every second

  18. Instant Coffee • Latin American countries are attempting to make changes to respond to the growing instant coffee market • Three Latin American countries (Brazil, Columbia, and Ecuador) have become significant exporters of instant coffee • Benefits from this change over have been limited because of transnational corporations • Local Exporters face many challenges: • Inability to fund large advertising campaigns • Compete with brand names • Distribute to large market

  19. Coffee and the Ecosystem • Traditionally a shade grown crop that is grown under a canopy of trees • These shade trees provide an excellent source of biodiversity • The new modern system however, emphasizes the use of pesticides and the increase in chemical inputs to retain high yields • Sun plantations-ultimately more prone to water and soil runoff and long term damage of the soil

  20. Benefits of Shade Grown Coffee • Deforestation is a constant issue in many areas of Latin America • Destroying the habitat of many species and much biodiversity • Shade grown coffee plantations provide refuge for forest biota that has been displaced due to deforestation

  21. Problems in Coffee Growing • 70% of the world’s coffee in grown on farms of less than ten hectares and the vast majority is grown on family plots of between one and five hectares • Coffee is grown in the wide tropical and sub-tropical belt around the Equator, including some of the countries who face severe development challenges

  22. Fair Trade-Offers Hope • Small landholders struggle to feed their families from the income they make from coffee alone • Peris Mwihaki coffee grower in Kenya-In recent years her coffee cherries have brought her no more than 2-3% of the final selling price of Kenyan AA coffee on supermarket shelves in the North • “Payments don’t reach us here in the hills,” “Peris explained. “The farm is just as hard work as it ever was, we’re getting nothing in return”

  23. Fair Trade… • Commercial businesses that develop relationships with farmers and are interested in improving the lives of those farmers from which they buy from • Commitment is to pay farmers a fair price and what they deserve fro producing that product • The price must cover the costs of production and must also be stable • Fair trade coffee sales are growing and in 2001 coffee grew by 12 per cent

  24. The End!

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