Coffee AnAfro-ArabGift to the World
A PowerPoint Presentation by Richard W. Franke Professor of Anthropology Montclair State University This lecture was last updated 06 November, 2013
Learning objectives for week 12 – to discover the African origins of coffee to learn how the Muslim world brought coffee out of Africa to appreciate some of the ways coffee has influenced world history to learn about Fair Trade: coffee's latest trend
Sources used for this presentation: • Braudel, Fernand. 1973. Capitalism and Material Life: 1400–1800. New York: Harper Colophon. Trans. By Miriam Kochan. • Dicum, Gregory, and Luttinger, Nina. 1999. The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry from Crop to the Last Drop. New York: The New Press. • Grun, Bernard. 1991. The Timetables of History. New York: Simon and Schuster. New Third Revised Edition. • Hattox, Ralph S. 1985. Coffee and Coffeehouses: The Origins of a Social Beverage in the Medieval Near East. Seattle: University of Washington Near Eastern Studies No. 3. • Pendergrast, Mark. 1999. Uncommon Grounds: The History of Coffee and How It Transformed Our World. New York: Basic Books. • http://47.1911encyclopedia.org/K/KA/KAFFA.htm • http://www.transfairusa.org • http://www.globalexchange.org • http://www.nytimes.com/2013/03/17/business/coffees-economics-rewritten-by-farmers.html?_r=0 Anth 140 This slide was updated 18 March 2013
O Coffee! Thou dost dispel all care, thou are the object of desire to the scholar. This is the beverage of the friends of God. In Praise of Coffee Arabic poem, 1511
“Coffee leads men to trifle away their time, scald their chops, and spend their money, all for a little base, black, thick, nasty, bitter, stinking nauseous puddle water.”
“…coffee falls into your stomach, and straightaway…ideas begin to move….Things remembered…. Similes arise, the paper is covered with ink.” Honoré de Balzac1799–1850
Coffee Facts Coffeeis • the second most valuable item of legal international trade – after petroleum. • the largest food import of the United States by value.
Coffee Facts • The world drinks 2.25 billion cups of coffee per day. • The United States – with 5% of the world’s population – consumes 20% of the world’s coffee.
Coffee Facts • 20 million people around the world work on coffee plantations • Every cup of coffee requires 1.4 square feet of land – a little less than twice the size of a standard 8½ by 11 inch piece of paper. • For a total of 26.8 million acres.
The 13.6 billion pounds produced in 1996 would make a pyramid higher than the Eiffel Tower. Coffee Facts
Brazil Colombia Indonesia Mexico Ethiopia Guatemala India Source: Dicum, Gregory and Luttinger, Nina. 1999. The Coffee Book: Anatomy of an Industry from Crop to the Last Drop. New York. The New Press. Page 41. Figures from FAO. -- 2.8 billion pounds annually -- 1.8 billion -- 900 million -- 800 million -- 475 million -- 450 million -- 425 million The Largest Producers in the 1990s This slide was updated 29 April 2013
But only 13 cents on the dollar goes to the farmers and laborers who produce the coffee.
Coffee Facts While 67 cents goes for roasting, grinding, packaging, trucking, and advertising. We will return to this problem in the final section of this presentation when we consider “Fair Trade” coffee.
Why Coffee? Coffee’s famous active ingredient is caffeine, one of several hundred chemicals in a single cup. Caffeine is a type of xantine, the name for a set of compounds found in tea, cocoa, and other plants.
Why Coffee? Caffeine –1,3,7-trimethylxanthine–blocks the action of a brain neurotransmitter named adenosine. By blocking the ability of adenosine to bind with its receptors in the brain – a binding that causes sedation – caffeine effectively stimulates brain activity.
Why Coffee? Coffee contains 80 to 150 milligrams of caffeine per cup, more than twice as much as a cola, and more per cup than tea. Two cups of coffee produce enough increased brain activity to show up on an EEG (electroencephalograph).
Why Coffee? Four cups or more will increase the heart rate and the breathing. Caffeine takes effect in most people within 30 to 60 minutes.
Caffeinism Too much caffeine affects the central nervous system, leading to anxiety, irritability, nervousness, lightheadedness, or diarrhea.
Caffeinism Habitual drinkers suffer from fatigue and pounding headaches when they try to stop or reduce their intake.
Caffeinism Caffeine interferes with tranquilizers such as valium, but caffeine’s effects can be heightened when ingested while taking birth control pills and some other drugs that cause the caffeine to accumulate in the body.
Caffeine As Medicine Caffeine dilates the blood vessels leading to the heart, thus increasing blood flow, while restricting blood flow in the head, which helps to diminish headaches – even migraines.
Caffeine As Medicine Xanthines such as caffeine dilate the bronchioles in the lungs and relax the smooth muscles which regulate respiration. A couple cups of coffee can reduce the severity of an asthma attack – something known for centuries.
Caffeine As Medicine Statistical research suggests that regular coffee drinkers are less likely to commit suicide and less likely to suffer from hypertension, diabetes, ulcers, and some other diseases. Drinking fewer than five cups a day keeps you safe from any increased risk of heart disease.
Caffeine And Disease However, caffeine causes females to lose calcium and thus increases the risk of osteoporosis unless offset by ingestion of additional calcium.
Caffeine And Disease Coffee has been implicated in several types of cancer, premature births, low birth weight babies, and heart disease. However, further research suggests that coffee drinkers may have a greater tendency to engage in other behavior such as smoking that is the immediate cause of these problems.
Coffee and Socialability It is the social aspect of coffee drinking – perhaps connected to caffeine’s stimulation of the nervous system and brain – that has made coffee the focus of so much activity and attention throughout its brief history.
We will review some of the history of coffee, coffeehouses, politics, and society shortly. But first…
What Is Coffee? • Coffee is the fruit of a woody shrub of the genus Coffea, in the family Rubiaceae. • The coffee bush can grow to a height of 32 feet, but is usually cut off at about 8 feet. • It grew originally in the tropical forests of Africa
What Is Coffee? After the flowers pollinate, small “cherries” develop, each with two seeds, or coffee “beans.” Coffee requires a lot of sunshine, moderate rainfall, altitudes between sea level and 6,000 feet, average temperatures between 60 and 70 degrees Fahrenheit, and freedom from frost.
After 7 to 11 months, the green cherries ripen, turning red. One coffee bush can produce about 4,000 beans per year = one pound of roasted coffee. What Is Coffee?
What Is Coffee? There are more than 20 species of coffee, but… …only two account for most of the world’s production and consumption.
Coffea arabica, the original coffee, and considered by most people to have the better taste. About ¾ of the world’s coffee is arabica today. Coffea canephora, known to most people as “robusta.” Robusta has more caffeine, grows in hotter climates, and is more disease resistant. What Is Coffee?
What Is Coffee? The coffee bean is a complex biological entity
The beans are dried and roasted. Much of this tedious and low paid work is done by women throughout the world – as shown here by women in Zaire, Central Africa. What Is Coffee?
Origin of Coffee • Coffee comes to the world from Ethiopia – a country of Eastern Africa. • It has the longest known history of any African nation except for Egypt. • Once known as “Kush,” (including part of modern day Sudan) Ethiopia or Sudan produced at least one of the pharaohs of ancient Egypt in the 8th Century BC.
Ethiopia • The Queen of Sheba is thought by some to have been an Ethiopian monarch. • Modern Ethiopia is a complex nation with a population of 91 million people in 2012 – second only to Nigeria in Africa. • 85 languages are spoken within its borders in addition to Arabic and English that are widely used as connecting languages (lingua francas).
Ethiopia • The Blue Nile, the main source of the Nile River of Egypt, originates in Lake Tana of Northwest Ethiopia • About 45% of Ethiopia’s people are Muslim, while… • About 40% are Ethiopian Orthodox, also called “Coptic Christians.”
Coptic Christianity • Coptic Christians believe that their religion was founded by Saint Mark. • “Coptic” means “Egyptian.” • They follow their own Pope who resides in Alexandria Egypt. • The present Coptic Pope is Shenouda III. • Coptic Christians have their own version of the Bible and in Ethiopia they have their own written language in which their Bible is printed.
Coptic Christianity Coptic Christianity is thought by scholars to be as old as 60 AD in Egypt and almost that old in Ethiopia. This hymn and prayer book with Arabic translations in the right hand column resides in The Coptic Museum in Cairo, Egypt.
Origin of Coffee • But neither Muslims nor Christians invented coffee. • Our word “coffee” probably comes from the Ethiopian “Kaffa,” a province of ancient Abyssinia (Ethiopia) where the Galla or Kafischo speaking people lived. • The map on the next slide shows where coffee was invented.
Origin of Coffee Kaffa Area →
Origin of Coffee The Kaffa area is southwest of the modern capital of Addis Ababa… …and just west of the Great Rift Valley, where the African continent is splitting apart in one of the world’s great geological processes.
Origin of Coffee Kaffa Area→ Great Rift Valley→
Origin of Coffee Here, by or before 575 AD the Galla people began harvesting and eating the coffee beans for quick energy. Originally, the beans were crushed in with balls of animal fat to create a high protein energy bar for use on long treks.
Origin of Coffee A modern Ethiopian recipe maintains the historical origin of coffee: mix fire-roasted beans with salt, butter, onions, fenugreek, white cumin, basil, cardamom, oregano, and turmeric. Nearby ethnic groups began brewing the beans with boiling water or fermenting them into a coffee wine.
Origin of Coffee One local Ethiopian story has it that a shepherd named “Kaldi,” (“hot” in Arabic) noticed his goats behaving strangely after ingesting the red berries. The real discoverer of coffee may remain forever anonymous.
The Muslim Connection The spread of coffee out of the high plateau of southwestern Ethiopia was facilitated by traders and scholars of the Muslim world of the time of the European Middle Ages.