Origin The legend of the origin of coffee begins around 850 AD with an Ethiopian goatherd named Kaldi. One day while he was searching for his goats he happened to come across a leafed shrub with bright red berries, and was astounded. Kaldi had decided to sample the berries himself and in no time, he was dancing gleefully with his newfound goats around the green-leafed shrubs. A curious onlooker then decided that he would gather the berries himself, bring them home and study them. In his experiments he roasted them, boiled them, and sampled the resulting beverage. He then shared what he found with the rest of his fellow monks, and soon no one fell asleep at prayers! And so coffee spread from place to place creating a more gleeful and wakeful world..
Earliest Users • Around the first millennium, the Muslims used coffee as a substitute for alcoholic drinks because alcohol was forbidden in the Islam religion. • In 1511 Khair Beg, governor of Mecca, tries to ban coffee for believing that its influence might induce rebellion to his rule. The sultan then sends word that coffee is sacred and has the governor executed. • By the 1600s, coffee had spread throughout most of Europe. Like most new things, the use of coffee caused controversy. In some European cities, the beverage was called all types of names, including a “bitter invention of Satan”. At one point local clergy in Venice condemned it until the Pope gave approval for its use.
In 1607 Captain John Smith is believed to have introduced coffee to North America. • In 1645 the first coffeehouse opens in Italy. • In 1652 the first coffeehouses appeared in England. This is also where tipping became popular. • In 1668 coffee replaces beer as New York City's favorite breakfast drink. • In 1672 the first coffeehouse opens in Paris.
The two main types of coffee are Arabica and Robusta. Coffee Arabica is the better and more expensive of the two. These grow in semitropical climates near the equator at high altitudes. Robusta Coffee, which are grown exclusively in the eastern hemisphere, also thrive in equatorial climates, but at low altitudes.
Spread Through Commerce • From Ethiopia, coffee had then spread to Egypt and Yemen. The earliest credible evidence of either coffee drinking or knowledge of the coffee tree appears in the middle of the fifteenth century, in the Sufi monasteries of Yemen.By the 16th century, it had reached the rest of the Middle East, Persia, Turkey and northern Africa. Coffee then spread to Italy, and to the rest of Europe, Indonesia, and the Americas.
Coffee grows best in an area known as the Bean Belt--the band around the Earth in between the Tropics of Capricorn and Cancer.
Current Market Status • World coffee exports amounted up to 7.85 million bags in October 2010 compared with 7.51 million in October 2009. Exports have decreased by 4.3% to 93.6 million bags compared to 97.8 million bags in the same period last year. In the twelve months ending October 2010, exports of the Arabica Coffee totaled up to 61.8 million bags, inert from last year; whereas the Robusta Coffee exports amounted to 31.8 million bags compared to 36 million bags last year.
Value of Coffee After petroleum, coffee is today’s most important traded commodity; standing above coal, meat, wheat and sugar.
Cultural Influence on Social Customs • Venetians were the first to add milk and sugar to coffee. • Between July 1669 and May 1670, the Ambassador of France had managed to firmly establish the custom of drinking coffee among Parisians. • Coffee had become America’s nationalistic drink after the Boston Tea Party. • Turkish Coffee became central to the Ottoman Society • The spread of Islam brought coffee to the tables of the world as a stimulant, refresher, and symbol of hospitality. • By 1675, there were more than 3,000 coffeehouses throughout England
Right: Starbucks Coffee Café at Barnes and Noble Below: Café Procope in France Above: The Grand Café in England Below: The Café Trieste in San Francisco
Harvesting The process begins with the cherries growing on coffee trees. First, bushes are completely stripped of their fruit in a one-time engagement, either by a large group of workers or using special machines that separate the cherries and their branches. Next, the cherries are squeezed until the seed is recognizable. Smaller coffee estates produce smaller, higher quality, and much more valuable crops, so they can afford to employ people to wander through the trees selecting only perfectly ripe cherries—this process is then numerously repeated. These beans are dried and depulped in a simpler but more labor-intensive operation; by leaving them out in the sun and turning them scarcely with a rake. Once dried, they are depulped by machine to remove the beans. This is called green coffee and it's exported by the great quantities to places such as the United States, Belgium and Europe, where it is turned into the roast and ground or instant coffee. The various types of coffee are distinguished by the variety and origin, the flavor and the aroma.
Different Ends for Coffee • Highland and lowland coffee - Highland coffees have a particularly fine aroma and are cultivated on plantations at altitudes of 600 to 1,800 meters above sea level. Lowland coffees have a different flavor and originate from plantations at a lower altitude. Generally, the higher the altitude, the more rich the quality of coffee produced. • Arabica beans grow at altitudes between 600 and 1,800 meters above sea level and take approximately six to nine months to mature. These beans are worth a higher price on the coffee market because growing coffees at higher altitudes is more expensive and labor intensive. Arabica coffees are well-flavored and aromatic, with less caffeine than Robusta. • Robusta is mainly cultivated in West Africa and Southeast Asia. Robusta trees are very hearty plants that grow at lower altitudes ranging from sea level to 600 meters. They are more cold, moisture-tolerant and disease-resistant than the delicate Arabica. Robusta coffees have a somewhat unrefined, earthier taste. • Decaf - Seeds are decaffeinated while they are still green. Some methods used to remove the caffeine from coffee include soaking the beans in hot water or steaming them in a solvent to dissolve the caffeine – containing oils.
Technological Advancements-Timeline • 1690: The Dutch become the first to transport and cultivate coffee commercially • 1822: The prototype of the first espresso machine shows up in France • 1865: Coffee percolators appeared in Europe and America thanks to inventor James Mason • 1885: A process of using natural gas and hot air becomes the most popular method of roasting coffee • 1886: Maxwell House is first served in Nashville, TN • 1900: Hills Bros. begins packing roast coffee in vacuum tins • 1901: The first soluble "instant" coffee is invented by Japanese-American chemist • 1903: The process of removing caffeine from the beans without destroying the flavor is mastered. It is marketed under the brand name "Sanka” and is introduced to the United States in 1923. • 1905: The first commercial espresso machine is developed in Italy • 1906: An English chemist living in Guatemala creates the first mass-produced instant coffee (his brand is called Red E Coffee) • 1908: Melitta Bentz makes a filter using blotting paper • 1933: Dr. Ernest Lily manufactures the first automatic espresso machine • 1938: Nestle invents freeze-dried coffee • 1946: In Italy, Achilles Gaggia perfects his espresso machine.
Trade and Taxes on Coffee • In the 1500’s, the first coffee traders were selling in Europe. • Importers of Coffee in the 1500’s included ports in Alexandria and Smyrna. • High taxes were imposed on coffee when it became well known and popular. This led countries to grow their own coffee. • In 1723, the French, Dutch, English, Spanish, and Portuguese invaded the tropical belt to obtain coffee. • Because of the expansionist policy of the Ottoman Empire, Islam spread to North Africa, Europe, and South Asia which contributed to the diffusion of coffee. • In the Eighteeth Century, men of the culture loved the drink and referred to it as the “intellectual beverage”
Paduan Prospero Alpino A famous botanist and physician named Paduan Prospero Alpino brought sacks of coffee with him from the East to Italy in 1591 and 1592. He introduced coffee to the Italians. At first, it was very expensive and only the rich and wealthy purchased it, but as it gained popularity and began to be sold in other places besides the Chemist’s shops, other people started buying it.
Pope Clemente VII He was the Pope of a Christian church in Italy. Representatives of that church believed that drinking coffee was unfaithful, so Pope Clemente VII forbid and banned the faithful Christians to drink. Coffee was known as the “devil’s beverage”.
King George III Coffee was first introduced to the New World in the mid-1600’s in New Amsterdam, now known as New York. Tea was the preferred drink back then, and King George imposed ridiculously high taxes on it. This led to a revolt known as the Boston Tea Party. As a result, coffee became the most preferred beverage.
Who Did What? • Doreen Sayadfar : Slides 2-10 and 14-18 • Mayuri Patel : Slides 11-13 and 19-24