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# Introduction to Folds (p. 372-413)

Introduction to Folds (p. 372-413). Nomenclature Geometric analysis More nomenclature Fold mechanisms - flexural-slip folding - buckling - kink folding. Why are folds important? fundamental to deformation of the Earth’s crust.

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## Introduction to Folds (p. 372-413)

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1. Introduction to Folds (p. 372-413) • Nomenclature • Geometric analysis • More nomenclature • Fold mechanisms - flexural-slip folding - buckling - kink folding

2. Why are folds important? fundamental to deformation of the Earth’s crust Sensitive markers to tectonic stresses- everywhere!! tectonic transport direction

3. Structural traps for oil Controls ore geometry in strata-bound deposits

4. Main types of folds Anticline: fold that is convex in the direction of the youngest beds Syncline: Fold that is convex in the direction of the oldest beds *requires that you know facing direction (direction of youngest beds); know stratigraphy! Antiform: convex up Synform: convex down *simply describes geometry anticline syncline synformal anticline antiformal syncline

5. Geometric analysis inflection point: point of opposing convexity median surface: imaginary surface connecting inflection points fold width, fold height symmetrical vs. asymmetrical concept of vergence

6. Geometric analysis cont. hinge zone – hinge line: zone of max. curvature fold axis: imaginary line, which when moved parallel to itself can define the form of a fold

7. Geometric analysis cont. axial surface: surface that passes through successive hinge lines axial trace: line of intersection of axial surface and ground surface symbology: anticline, syncline, antiform, synform

8. names of common fold shapes Chevron: planar limbs meet at discrete hinge point

9. Ptygmatic

10. Circular fold "lift-off" fold

11. symmetrical: median trace and axial trace are perpendicular asymmetrical: median trace and axial trace intersect at oblique angle symmetric asymmetric symmetric asymmetric

12. more terminology

13. open (70-120) gentle (>90) isoclinal (~0) tight (~10)

14. Regional structures that have limbs folded by smaller folds

15. overturned: at least one of the limbs exhibits overturning, or a downward facing direction

16. recumbent folds- "lie on their side"

17. recumbent fold with secondary box folds

18. parallel/concentric folds: layer thickness does not change (lower T) similar folds: layer thickness changes; thickening in hinge and thinning along limbs (higher T)

19. More descriptive terms?

20. Cylindrical: well-defined axial surface non-cylindrical: too complex to have a single well-defined axial surface

21. monocline: step-like fold, only one limb

22. folded folds!

23. Fold mechanisms for "free folds", where fold shapes depend on layer properties (1) Flexural-slip folding- accommodates buckling by layer-parallel slip -direction of relative slip is perpendicular to hinge -individual displacement small, but sum is enough to accommodate bending of rock -marked by strong stiff layers with contacts of low cohesive strength -occurs in uppermost levels of crust

24. minor structures related to flexural-slip folding

25. minor structures related to flexural-flow folding occur at higher temperature

26. (2) Kink folding -Occurs when there is strong cohesion between layers -Marked by sharp hinge, straight limbs (one short, two long)

27. Another mechanism: (3) Buckling -Instability develops when layers of different mechanical properties are subjected to layer-parallel stresses -Wavelength depends on layer thickness and stiffness- thinner layers yield shorter wavelengths ptygmatic folds: high competence contrast cuspate-lobate folds: low competence contrast

28. Important terminology/concepts ptygmatic fold circular fold fold tightness recumbent fold box fold parallel/concentric vs. similar folds cylindrical vs. non-cylindrical folds monocline flexural-slip folding parasitic folds kink folding buckling instability anticline syncline antiform synform anticlinorium synclinorium inflection point hinge line fold axis symmetrical vs. asymmetrical axial plane and trace chevron fold

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