Chapter 10 - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

chapter 10 n.
Download
Skip this Video
Loading SlideShow in 5 Seconds..
Chapter 10 PowerPoint Presentation
play fullscreen
1 / 37
Chapter 10
275 Views
Download Presentation
elina
Download Presentation

Chapter 10

- - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - E N D - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - - -
Presentation Transcript

  1. Chapter 10 Premodern Humans

  2. What we’re going for today… • Who were the immediate precursors to modern Homo sapiens, and how do they compare with modern humans?

  3. Left: Homo Erectus (1mya)Center: Australopithicus afarensis (2.5mya)Right: Homo Neandertalensis (100,000-32,000ya)

  4. Phylogeny of Genus Homo - Very Modest Species Diversity

  5. Phylogeny of genus Homo - Considerable Species Diversity

  6. The Pleistocene • The Pleistocene, often called the Ice Age, was marked by advances and retreats of massive continental glaciations. • At least 15 major and 50 minor glacial advances have been documented in Europe. • Hominins were impacted as the climate, flora, and animal life shifted.

  7. Middle Pleistocene • The portion of the Pleistocene epoch beginning 780,000 ya and ending 125,000 ya.

  8. Late Pleistocene • The portion of the Pleistocene epoch beginning 125,000 ya and ending approximately 10,000 ya.

  9. Glaciations • Climatic intervals when continental ice sheets cover much of the northern continents. • Glaciations are associated with colder temperatures in northern latitudes and more arid conditions in southern latitudes, most notably in Africa.

  10. Interglacials • Climatic intervals when continental ice sheets are retreating, eventually becoming much reduced in size. • Interglacials in northern latitudes are associated with warmer temperatures, while in southern latitudes the climate becomes wetter.

  11. Changing Pleistocene Environments in Africa

  12. Changing Pleistocene Environments in Eurasia • Green areas are possible hominid occupation areas. White areas are glaciers. Arrows indicate migration routes.

  13. Chapter 10 Premodern Humans

  14. What we’re going for today… • Who were the immediate precursors to modern Homo sapiens, and how do they compare with modern humans?

  15. Left: Homo Erectus (1mya)Center: Australopithicus afarensis (2.5mya)Right: Homo Neandertalensis (100,000-32,000ya)

  16. Phylogeny of Genus Homo - Very Modest Species Diversity

  17. Phylogeny of genus Homo - Considerable Species Diversity

  18. The Pleistocene • The Pleistocene, often called the Ice Age, was marked by advances and retreats of massive continental glaciations. • At least 15 major and 50 minor glacial advances have been documented in Europe. • Hominins were impacted as the climate, flora, and animal life shifted.

  19. Middle Pleistocene • The portion of the Pleistocene epoch beginning 780,000 ya and ending 125,000 ya.

  20. Late Pleistocene • The portion of the Pleistocene epoch beginning 125,000 ya and ending approximately 10,000 ya.

  21. Glaciations • Climatic intervals when continental ice sheets cover much of the northern continents. • Glaciations are associated with colder temperatures in northern latitudes and more arid conditions in southern latitudes, most notably in Africa.

  22. Interglacials • Climatic intervals when continental ice sheets are retreating, eventually becoming much reduced in size. • Interglacials in northern latitudes are associated with warmer temperatures, while in southern latitudes the climate becomes wetter.

  23. Changing Pleistocene Environments in Africa

  24. Changing Pleistocene Environments in Eurasia • Green areas are possible hominid occupation areas. White areas are glaciers. Arrows indicate migration routes.

  25. Middle Pleistocene Hominins • Widely distributed in Africa, Asia and Europe, replacing earlier hominins in previously exploited habitats (or coexisting as in Southeast Asia) • Exhibit several H. erectus characteristics • Large face, projected brows, low forehead, and thick cranial vault • Increased brain size, rounded braincase, vertical nose, and reduced occipital

  26. Homo heidelbergensisSkull From Zambia • The Kabwe (Broken Hill) Homo heidelbergensis skull from Zambia. • Note the robust browridges.

  27. Homo heidelbergensisBodo Cranium • The earliest evidence of Homo heidelbergensis in Africa.

  28. Europe • Gran Dolina (northern Spain) may represent H. heidelbergensis, possibly dating to 850,000 ya • Atapuerca site of Sima de los Huesos remains of at least 28 individuals date to 600,000-530,000 ya (represent 80% of all Middle Pleistocene hominin remains in the world)

  29. Asia • Dali fossils display H. erectus and H. sapiens traits, cranial capacity of 1120 cm3 • Jinniushan, northeast China, 200,000 ya and cranniall capacity appx 1260 cm3

  30. Middle Pleistocene Culture • The Acheulian technology of H. erectus carried into the Middle Pleistocene with little change until near the end of the period, when it became slightly more sophisticated. • Some later premodern humans in Africa and Europe invented the Levallois (next slide) for controlling flake size and shape. • This suggests increased cognitive abilities in later premodern populations.

  31. The Levallois Technique

  32. Middle Pleistocene Culture • Premodern human populations continued to live in caves and open-air sites, but they may have increased their use of caves. • Chinese archaeologists insist that many Middle Pleistocene sites in China contain evidence of human-controlled fire.

  33. Middle Pleistocene Culture • Researchers found concentrations of bones, stones, and artifacts at several sites suggesting that Middle Pleistocene hominids built temporary structures. • There is also evidence that they exploited different food sources, fruits, vegetables, fish, seeds, nuts, and bird eggs, each in its own season. • They also exploited marine life, a new innovation in human evolution.

  34. Middle Pleistocene Culture • Researchers have found little evidence supporting widely practiced advanced hunting. • However, in 1995 wood spears were found at the Schöningen site in Germany. • These were most likely used as throwing spears to hunt large animals. • The bones of numerous horses were also recovered at Schöningen.

  35. NEANDERTALS La Chapelle (France) skull and reconstruction

  36. Neandertals: Premodern Humans of the Late Pleistocene • Neandertals are typically placed by researchers into a separate species: Homo neanderthalensis. • Brain Size: Larger than H. sapiens today (1520 cm3 compared to 1300-1400 cm3 (perhaps adapted to cold climate). • Cranium: Large, long, low, and bulging at the sides. • Structure: Robust, barrel-chested, and powerfully muscled with shorter limbs than modern H. sapiens.

  37. Upper Paleolithic • A cultural period usually associated with modern humans, but also found with some Neandertals, and distinguished by technological innovation in various stone tool industries. • Best known from western Europe, similar industries are also known from central and eastern Europe and Africa.