Etymology • The study of word origins. • If you look at a dictionary entry, you’ll see the etymology of a word. • It might be something historical, cultural, etc.
Etymology • How does this help an ESL student? • Imagine a student encounters the word physique, how could you help her understand it?
Coinage • Coinage happens when a brand name becomes the common name for something. • In the business world, this is called “branding.” • Examples: jello=gelatin, kleenex=tissue, iPod=MP3 player. • Can you think of any others?
Borrowing • Just like it sounds, borrowing occurs when English uses words from other languages. • Can be seen in Starbucks – mocha café latte • Most languages use borrowing. Why do you think this true?
Compounding • This is simply combining two words to make one. Noun + noun = bathtub, doormat Adjective + noun = blacklist, lowball Compound adjectives = easy-going, hard-boiled
Blending • Combining two words, but shortening both. Like compounding, but the whole word is NOT retained. • Smoke + fog = smog • Breakfast + lunch = brunch • Spiced + ham = spam • Jazz + exercise = jazzercise
Clipping • Clipping is the shortening of words. • Some clipped words have become more common than their full-length counterparts. • Ad, auto, deli, demo, condo, lab, etc. • Other examples?
Special –y clipping • Hypocorisms are words shortened and finished with a –y sound. • Television = telly • Barbeque = barbie • Hipster = hippy Brits and Aussies use this A LOT.
Acronyms • Of course, we all know what these are. But, these sometimes become everyday words without us really thinking about it. • Radar, scuba, AIDS, MADD, and of course, TESOL • How has technology made these more relevant?
Zero Derivation • We mentioned this before: derivation without any affixes added. Also called conversion. The poor Down a beer Up the price Total a car
Onomatopoeia • Words that sound like the sound they describe. • Buzz, hiss, splash, thud, clang, etc. (like the old Batman TV show) • All onomatopoeias are NOT the same for all cultures • “Peeee”= “Beep” in Japanese • “Kakaraka”=“Cock-a-doodle-do” in Hindi • Can you think of any in another language?
Multiple processes • A word can undergo several of these processes we discussed. • Final thoughts?